Topic Specific Vocabulary

Topic Specific Vocabulary

Extensive vocabulary helps you to express yourself clearly and communicate distinctly. The best vocabulary to score in IELTS is Topic Specific Vocabulary – a vocabulary that focuses on specific topic.

Optimum utilization of good vocabulary helps you fetch high band in writing and speaking section particularly.  It also plays a key role in the listening and reading sections, contributing  upto 25% in your total score.

However, Topic specific vocabulary incorporates lots of collocations, in order to make your language sound more natural and fluent. This in turn enlarges your horizon and helps you raise your score.

The structure for the topic specific vocabulary is explained as follows

  • Topic – Meaning – Example

COMMUNICATION AND PERSONALITY

Non verbal – not involving or using words

  • Couples who have been married for years usually communicate non-verbally through their hand gestures or other physical actions.

Computerize – To carry out, control, or produce by means of a computer

  • The idea behind computerization of marking attendance, applying for leaves or filing a request to the Human Resource department helps them to make the system more user friendly.

Sender – To convey or cause to be conveyed or transmitted by an agent

  • The sender of the courier must mention his address and phone number on his package to ease the process of communication in case of a failed delivery of the package.

Facial expression  – gesture executed with facial muscles

  • A new mother makes a judgment of her baby’s well beings through the toddler’s facial expressions.

Oral communication –   communication by word of mouth

  • A manager cannot hire an employee with poor oral communication for a sales and marketing job profile.

Eye contact – The state in which two people are aware of looking directly into one another’s eyes

  • In the workplace, your posture and eye contact can send co-workers a positive or a negative message.

Workplace – a place where people work, such as an office or factory

  • Employees should adhere to workplace ethics to jibe in the environment and work peacefully.

Co worker – an associate that one is employed with

  • An effective co worker can guide you and help you excel in your work.

Ineffective – Not producing an intended consequence

  • Weak channelization can lead to ineffective communication.

Body language – communication via movements of the body

  • Non verbal communication includes gestures, facial expressions and body language.

Phone message – a message transmitted by phone

  • Phone message is considered an informal way of communication in a workplace.

Barrier – structure that impedes free movement

  • Barriers in communication can distort or prevent effective communication.

Effective – producing or capable of producing an intended result

  • Students should practice to learn effectively, and not just confine learning to theory classes.

Team work –   cooperative labor done by a group

  • A successful venture is the result of dedicated, relentless and progressive team work.

Spoken word –  a word that is spoken aloud

  • It is wise to introspect spoken words for public figures as each word uttered is analyzed by the media.

Face to face – in direct confrontation

  • Face to face conversation gives a better understanding to carry out the task easily.

Activated – rendered operative

  • Activated charcoal is used by beauticians to remove dirt from skin pores.

Confuse – mistake one thing for another

  • Semantic barriers cause confusion in effective communication.

Distract – To draw or direct to a different object or in different directions at the same time

  • It is easy to distract children with digital media in today’s world.

Inattentive – showing lack of awareness and concentration

  • During the second half of the class, students usually become inattentive.

Organize –  to arrange by systematic planning

  • First step to communication is to begin with a clear message that is logical and well organized.

Interfere – get involved so as to alter or hinder an action

  • One must not unnecessarily interfere in someone personal life.

Involve – contain as a part

  • Teamwork is a way through which each person gets involved to do the work delegated.

Highlight – an area of lightness in a picture.

  • Important points must be highlighted to make it easier for the student to revise the text.

Install – set up for use

  • It is important to install upgraded machinery in factories for maximizing output.

Interactive – Mutually or reciprocally active

  • Interactive sessions must be held individually and as a team by the human resource department to encourage team spirit.

Compose – To form by putting together

  • Many poets have composed beautiful versus to praise the serene mountains of North India.

Interview – A formal consultation usually to evaluate information by a candidate

  • In order to claim the treasure, the challengers had to undergo an interview as well.

Posture – the arrangement of body and its limbs

  • One must sit in correct body posture in order to avoid various heath issues.

Extrovert – socially confident person

  • It is usually extrovert people who make exceptional speakers.

Introvert – a shy, reticent person

  • I have always been an introvert and have made very few friends even at school.

Altruist – someone who cares about a person, regardless of anything

  • Being an altruist makes ones character strong and dependable.

Egoist – self centered, selfish person

  • An egoist can never have good intentions.

Ambitious – determined to be successful

  • In order to have a bright career, one must be very ambitious.

Diligent – showing care or effort in your work and duties

  • If you are a diligent worker, you earnestly try to do everything right.

Gregarious – liking to be with other people

  • Someone who is gregarious enjoys hosting parties and get together to interact and enjoy life.

Persistent – determined to do something despite difficulties.

  • Ravi remained persistent in finishing the project before the deadline.

Sincere – showing what you really think or feel

  • One must be very sincere while performing their tasks.

Witty –   Ability to say or write clever amusing things.

  • Witty remarks may sometimes prove to be offensive.

Practical – good at making or repairing things

  • Some people find practical subjects more interesting than theoretical ones.

Resourceful –  good at finding ways of doing things.

  • It is in the good will of the company to retain its resourceful employees.

Passionate – having or showing strong feelings

  • An artist must be passionate about his work to give his best performance.

Genuine – something exactly what it appears to be

  • There are not very genuine people in today’s world.

Adaptable – able to adjust to new conditions

  • All employees must be trained for using new software to make them competent and adaptable.

Adventurous – willing to take risks and try new ideas

  • Being adventurous lets you take many unsaid risks in life.

Courteous – polite, especially in a way that shows respect.

  • If you are courteous, your manners will always show concern for others.

Frank – honest and direct in what you say

  • Children should always be very frank with their parents while discussing problems.

Impartial – not biased

  • A teacher should always have impartial attitude towards his students.

Consecutive – following each other continuously

  • The students were asked to complete the two tasks consecutively without a tea break.
ENVIRONMENT

Acid rain  – Rainfall that causes harm to the environment.

  • Acid rain over the years has turned the sparkling white marble of the Taj Mahal turn yellow.

Carcinogen –  substance that causes one or more type of cancer

  • Cigarette smoke is injurious to health and contains a number of carcinogens.

Carbon dioxide –  gas released by plants

  • Living beings inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide to survive.

Carbon foot print – measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide, a person adds to the atmosphere.

  • People today are making a conscious effort of reducing their carbon foot print to save mother earth.

Car pool – share a car instead of driving one alone

  • Carpool is one method that can help reduce traffic on roads.

Compost – breaking down of organic waste into healthy soil

  • Natural compost acts as a pesticide to plants and helps in their growth.

Commute – to travel back and forth

  • In metropolitan cities, people usually commute for long hours from their home to workplaces.

Conservation – protection and preservation of natural environment

  • Conservation of environment would help all the living beings to live a healthy life.

Domestic waste  – garbage from a house or apartment.

  • In our country, there is a separate procedure to decompose domestic waste.

Dump – to put waste in a wrong place

  • The waste was dumped near a community center creating havoc in the city.

Eco community – a community with environment friendly buildings, and clean environment.

  • The architects today plan to build eco communities in the future.

Endangered species  – animals or plants in danger of becoming extinct.

  • More than half the species of the world are now endangered due to human encroachment in their natural habitat.

Ecosystem – complex system of relationship between living and non living things

  • The marine ecosystem of the northern gulf suffered an irreparable damage due to excessive commercialization in the area.

Extinct – no longer existing

  • Many Australian animals have become extinct this year due to the massive bush fires.

Emit – to release or project something.

  • Vehicles emit many harmful substances in the environment.

Fertilize – adding chemicals in soil for better plant growth

  • One must use organic fertilizers, in order to have a better produce.

Food chain – order in which organisms in an ecosystem eat one another

  • Food chain follows a single path whereas food web follows multiple paths.

Fossil fuel – fuel formed through very old plant and animal fossils.

  • Burning fossil fuels is a major cause of global warming.

Global warming –  long term rise in average temperature of the earth.

  • Global warming is one of the most vexing environmental issues today.

Green house gas –  gas in the atmosphere that stops heat from escaping into space.

  • Carbon dioxide , methane and nitrous oxide are some very common greenhouse gases.

Habitat – a place in which species normally live.

  • These days animals are getting extinct as their natural habitat is being destroyed by human activity.

Hazardous waste – dangerous substances that need careful disposal

  • Hazardous waste from factories is usually dumped in the oceans.

Pesticide –  chemical sprayed on crops

  • It is very hard to find safer pesticides in order to stop insects from destroying the crops.

Recycle – make something new from the used material

  • Green bins are usually kept for recycling of paper and glass.

Reforestation – planting of trees

  • Reforestation projects are undertaken to accelerate the recovery of the lost plants and trees.

Renewable – something not depleted when used.

  • Production costs for renewable are higher than for the non renewable.

Reuse –  to use again

  • Things like plastic bags and bottles should be reused to curb their unnecessary production.

Smog –  fog intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants.

  • Smog results from a large amount of coal burning in textile factories.

Wild life –  native fauns of a region

  • Wildlife is majorly threatened through poaching, hunting, and climate change.

Toxic – deadly or poisonous material

  • Release of toxic waste in the ocean adversely affects the aquatic life.

Toxin – a poison of plant or animal origin.

  • There are some toxins that are created by human body and some toxins are excreted by plants and animals.

Zero emission  – release of no green house gas.

  • Zero emission vehicles like electric cars are an innovative way to safeguard our environment.

Self sufficient  – able to function or produce without help.

  • We live in a self sufficient farming community.

Poaching – illegal hunting of animals

  • Poaching was usually done by impoverished farmers before it was banned.

Pollute – to contaminate a natural area

  • Human kind has polluted the atmosphere with its continuous concrete construction.

Decay – to rot or decompose

  • His body had begun to decay after a very short while.

Biodiversity – variety of plant and animal life in a particular habitat

  • Biodiversity is an important feature of both, natural and manmade ecosystem.

Ecology – branch of biology dealing with relations of organisms.

  • Ecology enriches our world and is crucial for human well being and prosperity.

Niche –  position that is very suitable for someone.

  • My uncle is an advocate in the Supreme Court and feels that he has found his niche.

Pyramid of energy – model of energy flow in a community.

  • Pyramid of energy shows biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level.

Water pollution  – contamination of water bodies.

  • Sources of water pollution are either from textile factories or the automobile industry.

Oil spill – an escape of oil into the sea

  • Oil spills became a major environmental problem in the 1960s due to the leakage of petroleum products in the water bodies.

Biodegradable – substance capable of being disposed by bacteria.

  • These cups are biodegradable so they are good for the environment.

Sustainability – ability to be maintained at certain level

  • Sustainability focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

Condensation – the conversion of vapour or a gas to liquid.

  • The difference in temperature lead to condensation of water on the window glass.

Evaporation – process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.

  • Evaporation constantly occurs throughout nature and is the fundamental part of the water cycle.

Ozone layer  – region of earth’s stratosphere that absorbs most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

  • The ozone layer protects the earth from the ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Solar power – power obtained with harnessing the energy of sun’s rays.

  • Solar power uses sun’s energy either directly through thermal energy or through use of photovoltaic cells.

Wetlands – land consisting of marshes and swamps.

  • Wetlands are dynamic aquatic ecosystems found all over the world.

Unleaded –petrol without added lead.

  • All the cars these days use unleaded petrol that produce less harmful gases.
FOOD AND DIET

Malnutrition – Lack of proper nutrition

  • Many young children have died over the years in the African subcontinent due to malnutrition.

Health – The state of being free from illness or injury

  • The health department of the state issued new guidelines to curb the spread of the pandemic.

Nutrients – A substance providing nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and growth

  • Nutrients like amino acids are very essential for the body to function properly.

Overeat – To eat to excess

  • Overeating not only leads to obesity but also vulnerable to high cholesterol levels that may lead to a cardiac arrest.

Vitamins – organic compounds essential for normal growth

  • Children shout be fed a diet that has enough vitamins and minerals for their overall growth.

Over weight – excessive or extra weight

  • People having an unhealthy diet usually are overweight.

Obesity – the unhealthy condition of being very fat or overweight

  • Most of the people in America usually suffer from obesity due to unhealthy lifestyle.

Illness – a period of sickness affecting the body and mind.

  • Mental illness has more devastating effects on a person than physical ailments.

Diet – all the foods a person or animal usually eats

  • ­ One must take a healthy diet in order to stay fit.

Calorie – a unit for measuring the amount of energy we get from food.

  • Athletes are conscious of their physical well being and hence take only calculated number of calories.

Carbohydrates – substances in food that is a major source of energy

  • Limiting carbohydrates in diet is a good way to lose weight.

Body mass index (BMI) – a weight to height ratio

  • The body mass index can be used to access physical fitness of a human body.

Junk – unhealthy food and food products

  • Junk food especially pizza with a glass of aerated drink is very popular among the youngsters.

Saturated fat – A type of fat that’s found in butter, cheese

  • Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet can help you live longer.

Trans fat – an artificial fat that makes food last longer and taste better.

  • Food containing trans-fat are banned in many places because they’re detrimental for our health.

Sugar – Natural carbohydrate found in fruits and vegetables.

  • Artificial sugar is used to give flavor to cakes and pastries.

Salt – White crystalline substance, adding taste to the food.

  • The best way to season the meat is to add salt in it.

Pescetarian diet  – diet that includes vegetarian food and fish but no other form of meat.

  • My cousin thinks farming animals and chickens is cruel and bad for the planet, so he consumes a pescetaria diet.

Vegan diet –  With plant foods only

  • Many people these days are strictly following a vegan diet.

Preservatives -a chemical substance used for preventing food from spoiling or wood from decaying

  • Many processed foods have added preservatives, artificial coloring and flavoring.

Cancer – serious illness that is usually difficult to cure and often leads to death

  • My grandfather died of stomach cancer when he was seventy.

Cholesterol – substance in body cells that can cause heart disease if their levels in the blood are too high.

  • Our body must not exceed a certain amount of cholesterol.

Diabetes – serious illness in which a body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in blood.

  • Being obese is the most common cause of diabetes.

Contaminate – To make inferior or impure by admixture

  • Contaminated water can cause infection in the stomach.

Epidemic – a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease

  • The epidemic can cause widespread destruction to human life on earth.

Fatal – causing someone to die.

  • The accident could have turned fatal for all passengers, had the driver not applied brakes in time.

Lobby – to contact people with power like politicians and try to influence them for your benefit.

  • The food industry spends huge amount of money lobbying politicians.

Regulate – control by means of rules and regulations.

  • Sweating allows human body to regulate its temperature.

Risk factor – something that increases a person’s chance of encountering a risk

  • Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.

Stroke – sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen.

  • Knowing the signs of stroke is the first step in preventing a stroke.

Vegetarian – someone who does not eat meat or fish.

  • People in India usually eat vegetarian food on Tuesdays.

Eggetarian – a vegetarian who also eats eggs and egg products

  • Athletes turn eggetarians to fulfill their nutritional demand for protein.

Consume – eat, drink or ingest

  • The poor consumed all food packets provided to them by the government during the lockdown.

Bland – tasteless

  • The fruit tasted bland at first but later turned sweet.

Aroma – a nice smell, especially from food

  • I love sipping a hot cup of aromatic coffee during the winter.

Dessert – Sweet food eaten at the end of a meal

  • My favorite dessert is tiramisu which is a coffee flavored Italian dessert.

Entrée – main course of a meal

  • Entrée should be ordered after the appetizers and is usually a heavy gravy curry with bread to go with it.

Kitchenware – things used for preparing food.

  • Our kitchen cupboards are full of kitchenware that we hardly use.

Menu – the list of food and drinks served in a restaurant

  • The elaborate menu at the wedding consisted of 5 different cuisines.

Ingredients – all the foods used to make a dish or meal

  • ­ It is very important to put exact amount of ingredients in order to make your dish taste delicious.

Poultry – the flesh of chicken and other domestic fowl as food.

  • Factory farms keep poultry in tiny cages in order to make huge money.

Recipe – Instructions for cooking a dish or meal

  • An elaborate recipe can help even a novice to cook good.

Fry – to cook something in hot oil or fat

  • ­ I prefer to have fried chicken than grill it.

Cutlery – implements for cutting and eating food

  • It is very difficult to eat rice without proper cutlery.

Grain – The seeds or fruits of various food plants including the cereal grasses

  • The food grains were destroyed due to lack of proper storage.

Bake  – to cook in an oven

  • I have made several attempts to bake a cake but have never succeeded in any one of them.

Appetizer – food served before the main course.

  • I love having a clear vegetable soup as an appetizer.

Course – one part of the meal

  • French people usually have three courses in a full meal.

Delicious – tasting very good

  • The delicious food cooked by my mother makes me overeat.

Grill – to cook something just above or below a heat source

  • The barbeque was used to grill meat and vegetables during the house warming party in the backyard of my house.
FAMILY AND CHILDREN

Nuclear family – family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children

  • The nuclear family system is a traditional way of living still followed in India.

Extended family – family that includes near relatives in addition to a nuclear family

  • It is common for children to spend their vacations with their extended families.

Single parent – a parent not living with spouse or partner.

  • It is a tough job to nurture kids as a single parent.

Relatives – group of people related by blood and marriage.

  • Relatives play a very important role in keeping a family intact.

Siblings – brothers and sisters.

  • No matter how much siblings rant but they always hold each other’s back.

Adolescents – young person developing into an adult.

  • Adolescents can sometimes behave irrationally and get into trouble.

Dependents – Relying on another for support

  • Children under the age of 18 are considered dependents under the Indian constitution.

Authoritarians – Demanding that people obey completely

  • The director of the company acts as an authoritarian and takes administrative decisions in case of an emergency.

Birth rate – The ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time

  • The birth rate of India should be controlled since the country is not equipped to feed so many people.

Upbringing – to care for a child, until he or she is an adult

  • A mother plays an eminent role in the upbringing of her children.

Raise – to take care of a child until they are adults

  • Helen, being a step daughter was raised by Mrs Neena with a lot of love and care.

Child development – Changes occurring in human beings between birth and at the end of adolescence

  • The first five years of life are critical for child development and requires constant care and attention.

Child care – care for children provided by an organization while parents are working

  • Child care organizations have led many campaigns for the development of neglected children.

Divorce – legal process to end a marriage

  • Divorces can be painful and lead to mental distress for both partners.

Separation –  the action of being moved apart

  • The separation of the child from his mother led to his depression and physical illness.

Child neglect – failure of being responsible towards children.

  • Child neglect can sometimes have ever lasting effect on a person’s personality.

Dysfunctional family – a family where there is conflict and misbehavior.

  • Children of dysfunctional families tend to carry these emotional scars even as an adult.

Emotional security– to feel happy and secure for having enough love, acceptance and respect

  • It is very important for a child to have emotional security from their loved ones or parents to feel safe.

Well adjusted – one who behaves rationally and has a good judgment.

  • A well adjusted happy child will be less likely to be physically ill.

Responsible parent – ability to act correctly while bringing up a child.

  • Mr Behal is a very responsible parent who takes care of his child’s mental and physical growth.

Formative years – a period of person’s life capable of alteration by growth and development

  • The period of adolescence can be termed as your formative years of an individual’s life.

Adoption – taking legal responsibilities as a parent of a child

  • The process of adoption involves a huge responsibility for the care taker.

Fostering – taking responsibility of a child in place of the child’s natural parents.

  • The foster houses usually are not able to provide a healthy atmosphere to the children.

Nurture – care for and protect while they are growing.

  • Teachers should nurture spontaneity, eagerness and creativity of their students.

Over protective – to protect (someone or something) more than it is necessary or reasonable

  • It is sometimes silly of parents to become over protective for their kids.

Spoiled child – a child who shows bad behavior due to overindulgence of parents

  • A spoiled child may bring more harm to himself than to others.

Uncle – the brother of someone’s father or mother.

  • My uncle is a philanthropic who started an NGO that protects women and children against violence.

Nephew – the son of someone’s brother or sister.

  • My nephew celebrated his 12th birthday last month with his family and friends.

Niece – a daughter of someone’s brother or sister.

  • Her niece won a gold medal in the swimming competition.

Cousin – a child of someone’s uncle or aunt.

  • My cousin is a qualified marine engineer working with the Indian Navy.

Spouse – a husband or wife, considered in relation to their partners.

  • Lisa and her spouse seem to share a very special bond with each other where they don’t shy from showing mutual affection.

Mother-in-law – the mother of one’s spouse.

  • My mother-in-law enjoys drinking coffee instead of tea in the morning, reading the daily newspaper.

Father-in-law – the father of one’s spouse.

  • My father-in-law spends his time writing and reading in his study.

Puberty – period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity

  • He reached puberty later than most of his classmates.

Infancy – period of early childhood.

  • Children are usually rebellious during their infancy.

Kin – one’s family and relations

  • Our neighbors and their kin attended a family function in the neighborhood.

Juvenile – Childish, immature

  • She was criticized by her seniors for her juvenile behavior at the party.

Monogamy – the state of being married to one person at a time.

  • Monogamy is practiced mainly by mammals all across the globe.

Nuptial – related to marriage or wedding

  • The nuptial bond not only bounds two people but also their families.

Orphan – a child whose parents are dead

  • She became an orphan when her parents died in a car accident.

Progeny – a descendant of a person or animal.

  • The saplings are the progeny for the old oak tree in my backyard.

Wedlock – the state of being married.

  • I joined the happy couple in celebrating their holy wedlock.

Quadruplets – four children born at one birth

  • The zoo says only 1% of red panda litters are quadruplets.

Offspring – a person’s child

  • Hereditary diseases usually pass from parents to their offsprings.
MEDIA AND ADVERTISING

Advertising agency – a company that creates adverts for other companies.

  • Advertising agency clients include business and corporations, non profit organizations and private companies.

Advertising budget – the amount of money a company tries to spend on advertising.

  • Every company has their own advertising budget.

Brand awareness – the extent of how well people know a particular brand.

  • Creating brand awareness is a key step in promoting a new product.

Brand loyalty – the degree to which people continue to buy from the same brand or company.

  • Brand loyalty is considered to be bread and butter of what keeps a business alive.

Packaging – the process of shipping a product

  • Good quality packaging makes the product look very attractive.

Call to action – encouraging someone to take a particular action.

  • If an employee is misbehaving in an organization, the manager must be called to action.

Classified ads – small advertisements often put in a newspaper or magazines by individuals.

  • Classified ads are much cheaper than large display ads used by businesses.

Buy and sell – exchange of items between individuals.

  • No organization can work without the process of buy and sell technique.

To cold call – to call someone with the aim of selling something without them asking you to do so.

  • When someone is cold calling, it is usually done without an appointment.

Commercial break – short break during tv programmes when advertisements are shown.

  • Short commercial breaks keep viewers more engaged.

Commercial channel – channels making money by showing advertisements

  • Commercial channels aired more repeats than their counterparts in the public sector.

To go viral – quickly become extremely popular.

  • Nirbhaya case went viral on the internet in a very short span.

Junk mail – unwanted promotional leaflets and letters

  • Junk mails are usually sent out by direct marketing, or direct mail firms.

Launch a product – to introduce a new product

  • Hyundai company launched a new car last month.

Mailing list – list of names and contact details used by a company to send information.

  • Mailing list is a formal way of transmitting information.

Mass media – large media outlets like tv, newspapers etc.

  • Mass media is the most convenient way to reach a large audience.

Niche product – product aimed at a distinct group of people.

  • Some companies launch a niche product with a very low affordability rate, in order to make it affordable for a particular section of society.

Press release – something written by company for newspapers and magazines and websites to share and publish.

Press release is a formal way of briefing about an event.

Place an advert – to put an advert somewhere.

  • Placing an advert is considered to be a very simple process.

Prime time – time when most people watch television.

  • Big boss show is networked at a prime time.

Product placement – using product as a prop in a tv show or a movie.

  • Product placement lets a company incorporate, specific brands and products through various celebrities for the promotion of the particular product.

Sales page – a page specifically used to promote a product.

  • Every luxury store has their own sales page designed for the public.

To show adverts – to display adverts on tv.

  • Adverts were shown throughout the movie emphasizing the importance of clean water.

Social media – websites enabling users to share content.

  • Social media helps interact with people all over the world.

Spam email – unwanted, promotional email.

  • Usually spam emails are sent through the enterprise mail server.

Target audience – a particular group being aimed at.

  • His stated target audience is old people.

Word of mouth – spoken communication as a means of transmitting information.

  • Slander is a defamatory statement made by word of mouth.

Transit advertising – posters on trains, buses, etc.

  • The main purpose of transit advertising is to reach riders and acquaint them with the brand.

Covert advertising – product being incorporated into a movie or tv show.

  • Promotion of ponds beauty cream is done by youth of today, however it is one of the examples of covert advertising.

Sponsorship – financial support received from a sponsor.

  • Arts sponsorship can be more effective than advertising.

Tele marketing – promotion and selling of product through a phone.

  • Tele marketing helps in making a direct contact with the customer.

Celebrity endorsement – celebrity paid to promote and market a product.

  • Celebrity endorsement is highly an effective way of marketing a product as it is a very high profile affair.

Flyers – printed information handed out to customers face to face.

  • Flyers can be an attractive piece of information but they are usually very costly.

Text messages – promotions reaching target audience in a limited time with limited characters in the text.

  • Jule’s text message contained a warning and brought riya  back to work in the organization.

Billboards – signs on the road or at sports stadiums.

  • Larger bill boards will always have a better impact on the audience or the customers.

Magazine ads – ads aimed at a specific market and interest groups.

  • Magazine ads are more expensive than newspaper ads.

Newspaper ads – ads placed in particular section in a newspaper.

  • Newspaper ads play a very important role in portraying good and bad both.

Tv commercial –  Promotion of products and services using color, action, sound and sight.

  • Promotion of products through this platform is memorable and accessible to large market.

Client base – a specific type of people that regularly buy the company’s product

  • My uncle had a client base of around 100 by the end of 2019.

Coupon – paper production that helps market a product.

  • Good brand stores provide coupons on the purchase of clothes in huge amounts.

Jingle – a short song , that helps sell product through audio or visual media.

  • Companies license popular songs from performers to promote their product that they want to sell by attracting the customer.

Press kit – media package of brochures and other assorted free materials, sent to various outlets to promote a product.

  • Film companies often use press kits to help give their new film some exposure.

USP – unique sales point or unique sales proposition.

  • USP is the essence of what makes your product or service better than your competitors.

Viral marketing – common expression used to help market a product across the internet.

  • Viral marketing is usually done by accident when a wave of internet popularity responds well to a particular product.

SEO – search engine optimization, process of increasing the quality and quantity of website traffic.

  • SEO targets different kinds of searches, for example, image search, video search etc.

Slogan – memorable phrase used in advertising.

  • Slogans are used in advertisements in order to promote a product.

Banner – elongated poster used to promote a product.

  • These days people see a lot of banners in print form on the buildings.

Drum up – procure something by persistent effort.

  • We were unable to drum up enthusiasm for the new policies.

Gloss – shiny, not substantial

  • The attire worn by the actress in the show last night was too glossy.

Buzz – speaking rapidly in a low voice

  • Students in a classroom have a habit to buzz all the time.

Hype – to promote or accent excessively

  • To sell a product we need to hype the usage of it.

 

MONEY AND BUSINESS

Mercantile – Connected with trade and commercial affairs.

  • Ravi joined his family’s mercantile business, buying and selling woodcut artefacts.

Trade – The activity of buying and selling or of exchanging goods or services between people and countries.

  • His company was trying to boost foreign trade.

Commerce – The buying and selling of goods and services.

  • On this island, commercial activities have slowed down since the pandemic began.

Transaction – A piece of business that is done between people, especially an act of buying or selling.

  • The monetary transactions between the two companies was the sole reason for the drift.

Dealing – The way of doing business with somebody.

  • The dealings with Ramesh’s Company are appreciable.

Patronage – The system by which an important person gives help or a job to somebody in return for their support.

  • Alfa Tech trade company is dependent upon the patronage of Mr Smith.

Objective – Something that you are trying to achieve.

  • The objective of the new venture was to attain more of the workforce.

Startup – A company that is just beginning to operate.

  • My friend and i left our jobs to begin our own startup.

Currency – The system of money that a country uses.

  • India uses rupees as its currency.

Appointment – A formal arrangement to meet or visit somebody at a particular time, especially for a reason connected with their work.

  • My daughter had a very important appointment yesterday, as she had to meet the CEO of the company.

Consolidate – To join things together into one.

  • As media becomes consolidated , the potential for its abuse becomes more serious.

Enterprise – A company or business.

  • The construction of the dam was a joint enterprise between Indian and Chinese governments.

Market – A particular area, country , or section of the population that might buy goods.

  • The domestic market is still depressed but the demand abroad is picking up.

Commodity – A thing that is useful or has a useful quality.

  • The country’s most valuable commodities include tin and diamonds.

Operational – Connected with the way in which a business , machine , system , etc.

  • There are operational advantages in putting sales and administration in the same thing.

Offshore – Happening or existing in the sea, not far from the land.

  • The shoe factory has been offshored to Mexico.

Reshoring – Moving a business that was based in a different country to its original country.

  • It was clear that re shoring can help in rebalancing the economy of the country.

Vested interest – A personal reason for wanting something to happen , especially because you get some advantage from it.

  • As both, a teacher and a parent , she had a vested interest in keeping the institute remain open.

Transact – to do and complete a business activity

  • The sale was transacted in condition of the greatest secrecy.

Amortizable – used to describe a business cost or an asset.

  • Capital expenses are amortizable over a number of years.

Coopetition – the act of working together with  a person who is your business competitor.

  • The two companies have a relationship, which you could describe a competition.

Cooperatively – Together with others towards a shared aim.

  • The teachers reached to the solution by working together cooperatively.

Intangible asset – Something that does not exist as a physical thing but is still valuable to a company.

  • Something that does not exist as a physical thing but is still valuable to a company.

Shareholder – An owner of shares in a company or a business.

  • I was a shareholder of the Reliance Telecom Company.

Devolve – to be given to other people.

  • To be a good manager, you must know how to devolve responsibility to others.

Legal Tender – Something that can be used as an official medium of payment.

  • My friend used his father’s property as a legal tender for his company.

Gold – great wealth

  • After shifting to America , my friend’s cousin is playing in golds.

Debt – An obligation to pay or do something.

  • Once a company goes into debt, it is hard to sustain it.

Subsidisation – The act or practice of giving money to somebody or to an organisation to help pay for something.

  • Subsidisation is being offered by the government of India to the small scale industries.

Barter – The system of exchanging goods, property, services, etc without using money.

  • In pre modern ages , people had no currency but traded by barter exchange.

Saving – An amount of something such as time or money that you do not need to use or spend.

  • An amount of something such as time or money that you do not need to use or spend.

Loan – The act of lending something.

  • The Bank of India denied a loan requested by the Reliance industries.

Grubstake – Funds supplied in return for a promised share of profit.

  • Mr Hiranandani worked as a grubstaker for Aamir Khan’s film.

Wealth – A large amount of money, property etc that a person or country owns.

  • One’s wealth doesn’t reflect one’s class.

Scratch – To make or remove mark, etc on something deliberately.

  • After the breakdown of the company, my friend started from scratch to build his business.

Cost – The amount of money that you need in order to buy , make or do something.

  • The cost of a beach facing house is very high.

Expense – The money that you spend on something.

  • The expenses of the institute were more than its earnings hence it collapsed.

Benefit – A helpful and useful effect that something has.

  • No benefits were provided by the government to the poor during the crisis.

Fundraiser – A social event or an entertainment held in order to collect money for charity or an organisation.

  • A fundraiser is being held by the rotary club for cancer patients on the 20th of December.

Collect – Get or being together

  • The donations were collected by the manager of NGO.

Invested – To buy property, shares in a company , etc in the hope of making a profit.

  • Flipkart invested its money into a new company named Myntra.

Usurer – A person who lends money to people at unfairly high rates of interest.

  • A person who lends money to people at unfairly high rates of interest.

Venture capital – Money that is invested in a new company to help it develop.

  • Wealth available for investment in new or speculative enterprises.

Pittance – An inadequate payment

  • He paid his worker a pittance.

Receipts – The entire amount of income before any deductions are made.

  • The receipt of the goods did not match the balance sheet of the company .

Monopoly – The complete control of trade in particular goods or the supply of a particular service.

  • The government is determined to protect its tobacco monopoly.

Forgery – The crime of copying money, documents, etc in order to cheat people .

  • He was found guilty of forgery.

Stagflation – An economic situation where there is high and continuous rise in the prices but no increase in the business activity.

  • In the 1970s and early 1980’s India saw the onset of stagflation.

Loot – To steal something.

  • Their shop was looted by three thieves.

Wallet – Flat case made of leather or plastic for carrying documents.

  • Alex paid for his ticket and tucked the wallet inside his suit jacket.
SPORTS AND EXERCISE

Active rest – A leisure time during which you exercise

  • Active rest is a technique that trainers implement to maximize benefits of a workout.

Volleyball – team sport where two teams are separated by a net.

  • Boys play volleyball better than girls.

Barbell – a weight lifting gear

  • If you are new to lifting weights, your barbell may only hold few pounds.

Brisk walk – fast walk

  • People who are obese must do brisk walking every day.

To build muscle – to gain muscle mass.

  • Regular exercising can help an adult to build on their muscle.

Fitness program – a timetable of activities to keep you in good shape.

  • World health organization organizes various fitness programs every year.

Football fan – someone who adores football.

  • My brother is a huge football fan.

Football pitch – surface on which you play football

  • Nowadays football pitches have turf for players to practice and play.

Football season – a period when football is played

  • My parents and I go to London every year during the football season.

Jogging – a form of running at a slow pace

  • Jogging keeps the heart rate very stable.

Arena – level area for holding sport events.

  • The arena was full of excited spectators cheering on their team.

Amateur– engaged in something, for example, playing sports.

  • The Asian games were originally for amateurs only.

 Athlete – a person who trains for and competes in a sport.

  • Some people become athletes to take it as a profession.

Champion – a top rated, highly successful player.

  • Michael is known as the champion of badminton in our school.

Cheer on – to shout encouragement to a team.

  • The audience made a lot of noise while cheering on their teams.

Compete – to take part in a contest.

  • Over 5000 athletes will compete in the Asian games.

Court – a quadrangular area on which ball games are played

  • The badminton court in Delhi has grass surface.

Cup – awarded as a price in a contest

  • After our team won the basketball match, we were awarded the championship cup.

Draw – to finish the game with an even score.

  • The cricket match between team India and England concluded in a draw.

Gym – a room or building equipped for physical exercise.

Our gym has many running and muscle strengthening machines.

Half time – Interval between first and second half of the game.

  • The players had a lot of water during the half time and could not play efficiently after that.

Lob – a shot that is hit in a high arc

  • The batsman hit the ball so hard that it lobbed over the heads of the audience and fell out of the ground.

Penalty – punishment imposed on the player for breaking rules.

  • They allowed him to pay back the money without any penalty.

Score – number of points earned during the game.

  • India improved their score in the second half of the game.

Serve – to hit the ball to begin playing

  • Serving the ball is one of the most important skills in sports like tennis.

Tackle – to challenge an opponent

  • Good players need to learn the technique of tackling an opponent player.

Team mate – a fellow member of the sports team

  • One of my teammate could not reach his work place on time.

Umpire – a sports official with authorities to make rules during a game

  • In a swimming competition, there are a minimum of two umpires conducting the competition.

Whistle – small instrument that make a high pitched noise when blown

  • The referee blew his whistle thrice to signal the end of the match.

Victory – the act of winning the game or contest.

  • The players had worked very hard and they deserved their victory.

Spectator – a person who watches the match.

  • Spectators have the tendency to create an exciting or a very dull atmosphere.

Skill – the ability to do something well.

  • Rahul has gone to a boxing camp to improve his boxing skills.

Record – the best performance that has officially been measured and noted.

  • The swimmer broke the Guinness World Records for being the fastest swimmer.

Another string to your bow – another skill

  • I enjoy my work, but I would like to have another string to my bow in case I lose my job.

To dive in head first – to start doing something 100%

If you begin something enthusiastically, without thinking about the possible consequences, you dive in head first.

To get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly

  • I got on a wrong foot with my best friend.

To jump through the hoops – to do what you are told to do

  • The general manager asked me to jump through the hoops, without being answerable to the higher authorities.

To do something off your own bat – to take an initiative and do something on your own

  • Whatever he did, he did off his own bat.

To get off to a flying start – to make a successful start

  • Milkha Singh got off to a flying start on the running ground.

To be on the ball – to be sharp and know everything that’s happening

  • The duke was on the ball when he noticed the boredom of the clients and quickly switched his presentation.

Plain sailing – without any problems

  • The team building activities were not at all plain sailing.

Run rings around someone – to be far superior to someone else

  • One should not unnecessarily run rings around someone, as it is ethically not right.

Name of the game – core priority

  • The name of the game in learning to play an instrument is practice.

You can’t win them all – impossible to win every match or contest

  • I know you are disappointed to have lost the game, but you can’t win them all.

Win some lose some – said to express consolation or resignation after failure in a contest

We had to shut the business down this week, but the food industry, you win some and lose some.

Be out of your league – when competitors are far superior to you.

  • Winning the cricket match this year against Australia is out of league for Pakistan.

Badminton – sport played by a racquet

  • Sehaj loves to play badminton.

Basketball – game played between two teams with a ball

  • Our school won the inter school basketball competition for 3 years consecutively.

A personal best – best score achieved by a sports person in a particular time.

Sachin Tendulkar’s score in the Asian games 2018 was his personal best.

 

TRANSPORT

Streetcar – an electric vehicle for transporting passengers and typically operating on city streets

  • Kolkata was the first city where streetcars were used in India.

Rapid transit – fast passenger transportation in urban areas

  • India is yet to establish a system of rapid transport in its metropolitans.

Vessel – a large boat or ship

  • Terrorists have started using vessels for transportation of weapons.

Congested – Extremely or excessively full or crowded

  • Roads in Delhi are very congested during office hours despite transportation through metros.

Rush hour – busy part of the day when people are travelling back and forth

  • The opening of new bridge in my city helped divert traffic in the rush hour.

Car pool – two or more people doing a regular journey in one car

  • Car pooling is an effective method to curb pollution in big cities.

Long haul – travelling a long distance

  • Long haul journeys can be stressful for old people.

Itinerary – a detailed plan or a route of the journey.

  • Tourists are provided with proper itinerary before starting their tour.

Round trip – a trip of a place and back again.

  • I drive around 200 km round trip in every 15 days to fulfill my professional responsibilities.

Air pollution – the presence of harmful substances in air

  • Burning of fossil fuel causes a lot of air pollution.

Emit – to send out

  • Heavy vehicles emit a lot of harmful gases which causes air pollution.

Electric car – a car that uses energy from a battery to operate

  • Electric cars can help you save money.

Spacecraft – a vehicle used for travel in space

  • India is preparing an indigenous spacecraft carrying astronauts for an expedition to the moon.

Auto pilot – equipment that allows for an aircraft or ship to travel in a particular direction without being manned

  • The auto pilot mode of the aircraft has not yet been tested in the laboratory.

Coach – a bus used to take groups of people on long journeys.

  • I would like to tour the city of Chandigarh in a coach with my friends.

Yacht – a boat used for travelling around for pleasure or racing.

  • Many travelers have now converted their yacht to tiny house lodging for sustainable living.

Overpass – a bridge that carries one road over another

  • Construction of new overpass reduced the traffic significantly.

Environmentally friendly – not harmful to the environment

  • Electric cars are more environmentally friendly than diesel or petrol cars.

Business trip – a journey taken for business purposes

  • My father goes for a business trip every month.

Commute – to travel regularly between work and home

  • I commute every day in my own car.

 Bumper to bumper – with very little space between the cars

  • The cars are aligned bumper to bumper during a traffic jam.

Hit the road – to begin a trip

  • I like to hit the road early while going on long journeys.

Service road – a small road next to a busier or faster road

  • Usually heavy vehicles are not allowed to take the service road.

Public transport – system of vehicles used by public

  • The fares for the public transport are not very high.

Journey – an act of travelling from one place to another

  • Train journeys are better than car journeys.

Motorway – a road with three lanes going each way.

  • Motorways play a very important role in transportation of goods and segregate traffic.

Junction – A place or point of meeting; an intersection of roads

  • The railway junction at the Shimla Railway station marks the end of northern railway line.

Roundabout – a road junction at which traffic moves in one direction round a central island to reach one of the roads converging on it.

  • Chandigarh is a planned city with many roundabouts.

Freeway/highway/expressway – a public road often with multiple lanes.

  • Usually people drive their cars at very high speed on highways or the expressways.

Ring road/ Belt way – a road that circles a town or a city

  • I never prefer taking a ring road while travelling.

Bus lane – a part of road marked off with painted lines for buses

  • Two wheelers are not allowed to use the bus lanes.

Noise pollution – annoying levels of noise

  • Increased volume of music in my house caused disturbance to my neighbors.

Petrol – a light fuel oil is used in internal combustion engines.

  • Petrol run transport caused increased levels of air pollution in the once sleepy town.

Rail card- a pass entitling the holders to reduced rail fares

  • Rail cards are usually used by youth to manage their budget.

Air pocket/ turbulence – a region of low pressure causing an aircraft to lose height suddenly

  • Air pockets in flights can sometimes can cause discomfort to its passengers.

Lorry – a large heavy motor vehicle for transporting goods.

  • Emergency food supplies were brought in by lorries.

Minibus – a small bus carrying about ten to fifteen passengers.

  • My family hired a minibus for a vacation to our native village.

Motorbike – small motor cycle with a low frame and small wheels.

  • My brother loves to ride motorbikes.

Ferry– a boat transporting people or vehicles over a water body

  • Venice is famous amongst tourists for its ferry rides.

Bicycle – a vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals

  • Riding bicycle was my favorite hobby during my childhood.

Pedestrian – a person who travels by foot

  • My grandfather has remained a pedestrian all his life.

Crowded – compacted or concentrated

  • Railway stations always remain crowded.

Departure – the act of leaving

  • The departure timings of some trains are usually fixed.

Arrival – the act of coming to a certain place.

  • During winters, train arrivals get delayed due to fog.

Ticket – a commercial document showing the holder is entitled to something.

  • Flight tickets are more expensive than train tickets.

Luggage – cases used to carry belongings when travelling

  • I always have extra luggage whenever I travel abroad.

Passport – a document allowing citizen to travel abroad

  • My passport just expired two weeks ago.

Helicopter – aircraft with long blades on top that assist in flying

  • Unlike airplanes, helicopters can fly even at low elevation.

Tram – a vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity.

  • He was asked to take the tram to the departure terminal of the airport.

 

TOURISM

Travel – To move or undergo transmission from one place to another

  • My friend travelled all the way from Mumbai to Chennai for my wedding.

Journey – an act or instance of traveling from one place to another.

  • The journey from Mcleodanj to Triund is very tiring.

Trip – to make a journey

  • Unplanned trips are the best kind of vacation.

Ecotourism – tourism directed towards exotic, threatened environment intended to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.

  • My tourist guide suggested me to visit the very famous ecotourist Ranthambore forests for my wildlife photography.

Transport – the act of moving something from one location to another.

  • There was no transport facility from Shimla to Mashobra during winters.

Export – commodities sold to a foreign country.

  • The export business of a country brings high revenues to it.

Pilgrimage – a journey to a sacred place.

  • Mecca and Medina are pilgrimages taken by the Muslim community all across the globe.

Sightseeing – the activity of visiting places of interest in a particular location.

  • We are planning to go for sightseeing at the Pichola lake after lunch.

Lodging – temporary accommodation

  • The lodging facilities of students are managed by Mr. Smith.

Destination – the ultimate goal for which something is done

  • As soon as we reached our holiday destination, we were invited to the bonfire party.

Leisure  – time available for lease and relaxation.

  • The students had a leisure time at the Garden of Buddha.

Grand tour – an extended cultural tour

  • I planned a grand tour to Europe to celebrate my parent’s 50th

Airlines – a commercial enterprise that provides scheduled flights for passengers.

  • The Air India airlines provide all comforts to their passengers.

Taxi/cab – a cab driven by a person whose job is to take passengers wherever they want.

  • Taxi drivers in Delhi are usually not cooperative.

Hotel – an establishment that provides lodging and usually meals, entertainment, and various personal services for the public

  • We had booked a sea facing room at our hotel for our vacation to Goa.

Camping – the activity of spending a holiday living in a camp.

  • My school has arranged a camping trip to Kheerganga this January.

Excursion – a journey taken for pleasure.

  • My brother surprised me by offering an excursion trip to Manali on my birthday.

Itinerant – travelling from place to place to work

  • Sandeep serves as an itinerant of the company for the marketing their newly launched products.

Voyage – an act of travelling by water

  • My father’s maiden voyage as the captain of the ship was in the year 1995.

Wayfaring – travelling on foot.

  • We decided to wayfare around the town to explore the place well.

Cuisine – manner of preparing food

  • We enjoyed so many different cuisines throughout our trip.

Junket – a trip taken by an official at public expense

  • Our Prime Minister was on a junket to USA for negotiating deals on crude oil production in India.

Wanderlust – very strong or irresistible impulse to travel

  • Ridhem’s wanderlust inspired her to be a tour and travel guide.

Trekker – a traveler who makes a long arduous journey.

  • Almost all professional trekkers prefer Divson’s trekking kit while traveling.

Roam – move about aimlessly

  • We were roaming about in the streets of Paris at 2am to enjoy night life there.

Jet lag – fatigue and sleep disturbance as a result of jet travel.

  • I suffered with a jet lag after a long haul flight from India to Toronto.

Locomote – to move about

  • Children begin to locomote when they are six to seven months old.

Slither – to pass or move smoothly

  • The snake slithered into the kitchen from the backyard.

Elapse – pass by

  • Probably several weeks shall elapse before the treatment starts for Lisa’s condition.

Commute – a regular journey of some distance to and from your place

  • It is very easy to commute to any place in Chandigarh.

Expedition – a journey organized for a particular purpose.

  • The expedition by researchers to statistically assess damage due to the pandemic has already begun in several countries.

Motion sickness – the state of being dizzy because of travelling

  • Throughout the journey she was suffering from motion sickness.

Sledge – a vehicle on runners pulled by horses or dogs for transportation.

  • We used a neighbors sledge and horse to transport fire wood for the night in Alaska.

Tripper – a tourist who is visiting sights of interest.

  • He was a very keen tripper till his last breadth.

Swash – the movement or sound of water

  • He could hear the swash of the lake from his balcony.

Travail – use of physical or mental energy

  • He was trembling and shaking in the agony of travail.

Byway – a side road less travelled

  • The byroad to Manali seemed too scary to continue our journey.

Hand luggage – luggage that is light enough to be carried in hand

  • Only 10 kg of hand luggage was allowed in the flight.

Circumnavigate – sail or travel completely around especially by water

  • The navy was circumnavigating throughout the Island to find traces of the crashed helicopter.

Prance – move with high springy steps

  • A number of rats prance against a black background.

Throughway – a broad highway designed for high speed traffic.

  • The throughway from Delhi to Agra is built very well.

Regional – related to or limited to a particular region.

  • There are 200 recognized regional languages spoken in India.

Boost – the act of giving hope or support to someone.

  • The coach boosted the team players for their brilliant performance in the match.

Infrastructure – the basic structures or features of a system or organization.

  • The infrastructure of Prime Minister’s office is built, keeping in mind all safety measures.

Stray – move about aimlessly or without any destination often in search of food or employment.

  • The man was straying around the jungle for weeks before he found shelter.

Crawl – a very slow movement

  • The baby is crawling for the first time.

Sport fishing – the act of someone who fishes as a diversion.

  • Sport fishing is very famous leisure activity near the village of Goa.

Heritage – Something transmitted by or acquired from a predecessor.

  • India’s heritage is spoken of highly in history books of all across the world.

Floriculture – the cultivation of flowering plants

  • All tourists were mesmerized by the floriculture displayed at the Rose Garden.

 

EDUCATION

Compulsory – Having the power to force someone to do something.

  • French language was a compulsory subject in our school.

Curriculum – Courses offered by a school or a university.

  • The University of Waterloo offers an excellent curriculum for all its programs as a result of continued research by its professors on periodic revision of text.

Inquisitive – Inclined to ask questions

  • Lisa has been a very inquisitive about her surroundings since childhood.

Discipline – Control gained by enforcing obedience or order

  • Discipline is an integral aspect of leading a healthy life.

Peer– One that is of equal standing with another

  • Technology has helped peer through various unknown facts of the astrological world.

Remedial – Concerned with the correction of faculty habits

  • Many students were advised to attend remedial classes for personality development.

Graduate – A holder of an academic degree or diploma

  • My brother is a law graduate from Delhi University.

Qualification – a pass of an examination or an official completion of a course, especially one conferring status as a recognized practitioner of a profession or activity.

  • Acquiring professional qualification requires perseverance and determination.

Research – Careful study to find out new knowledge.

  • Naina did a lot of research before deciding her topic for synopsis.

Visual – Relating to seeing or sight.

  • Children grasp better through visual information rather than words.

Theory – An idea or set of ideas used to explain a fact or event.

  • Scientific theories are sometimes hard to understand.

Degree – Title given by an educational institute upon completion of studies.

  • As soon as I finished my degree, I got a job in a very reputed company.

Evaluate – To determine the significance, worth, or condition of usually by careful appraisal and study

  • It is very important to evaluate your progress by the end of the semester.

Analyze – To study in great detail in order to discover meaning and essential features.

  • The doctor analyzed the patient’s reports before giving an opinion.

Procrastinate – Delay or postpone an action.

  • Lisa procrastinated and missed the project deadline.

Distance learning – a method of studying in which lectures are broadcast or lessons are conducted by correspondence, without the student needing to attend a school or college.

  • Many people who are employed continue their education through distance learning.

Higher education – Education beyond the secondary level

  • Students these days are travelling abroad for higher education.

Literacy – The ability to read and write.

  • The literacy rate in our country is increasing eminently.

Coursework – Work that is assigned or performed as a part of a course or study

  • The coursework of medicine requires long hours of study and practical work in health centers.

Co-education – The education of both male and female students at the same institution

  • Co-education is a very healthy way to teach discipline to students.

Illiterate – Unable to read and write.

  • The efforts of the government have decreased illiteracy rates by 50% in the last five years.

Primary ( Elementary ) Education – First stage of formal education

  • Authentic primary education is good for a child’s growth.

Secondary education – Education followed after primary level that typically lasts for six years

  • The years of secondary education help a child decide their career.

Concentrate – To direct your attention or efforts to a particular activity.

  • My brother cannot concentrate on his studies for very long.

School subject – A course or area of study.

  • English, Maths , Science etc are various compulsory school subjects.

School uniform – Obligatory attire worn by students

  • My school uniform was a combination of red and white color.

Private lessons – Extra time given to the students in case they face difficulty in understanding at school

  • Weak students should be given private lessons to help them attain better grades.

Formal education – classroom based learning provided by trained teachers.

  • Formal education is the best way to achieve a well qualified degree.

Non formal education – Flexible and learner centered learning

  • Non formal education does not target a particular group of people.

University degree – An academic title given by a university or college.

  • University degrees help you seek jobs on a better scale.

Boarding school – School where pupils live during term time.

  • Dehradun has many boarding schools.

Intensive course – A course that offers lots of training in order to reach a goal in a very short time

  • Intensive courses usually help children revise text who have already attended formal education.

Learn something by heart – To memorize thoroughly

  • I leaned the process of the digestive system by heart during my final exams.

To play truant – To stay away from classes without permission.

  • Rohan often played a truant and wrote his own absence notes.

Tuition fee – Money paid for the course of study.

  • Tuition fee of private schools is a very expensive affair.

To meet a deadline – To finish a task or job in agreed time duration

  • Shilpa could not meet the deadline and paid penalty for late submission of her project.

 Mature student – A student who is older than average and returned to education after a period at work.

  • Monil is a mature student in our batch who resumed education after serving the military.

Public schools – A school supported by public funds in North America

  • Public schools are widespread in North America for educating youngsters.

Subject specialist – A teacher who has great knowledge of a particular subject.

  • My mother is a subject specialist in Punjabi.

To take a year out – To spend a year working or travelling before starting university.

  • Randeep thought of taking a year out before getting committed to another degree.

To sit an exam – To take an exam

  • Yogesh sat for an exam several times, but could not clear his backlog.

State school – A school paid for by public funds and available to the general public.

  • State schools have a varied structure to provide better education.

Tutor – A teacher paid to work privately with one student or a small group.

  • My parents got me a mathematics tutor to help me improve my grades.

Pupil – A person who is taught by another, especially a schoolchild or student in relation to a teacher

  • Many pupil seek special attention by their teachers for subjects they find hard to understand in regular classes.

Dissertation – A long piece of writing on a specific subject, submitted especially at the end of the degree.

  • Students pursuing a degree of law submit their dissertation by the end of their degree to get full credits for acquiring a degree.

Seminar – An occasion when a group of students and a teacher meet for training.

  • My friend went to attend a seminar on women empowerment that took place in the Jammu University.

Post doctoral – Advanced study that a person does after completing their doctoral studies.

  • My father supervised several post doctoral projects in the university.

College – A place of higher education or vocational training

  • My degree at Lady Shree Ram college laid the foundation of my career choice.