Topic Specific Vocabulary

Topic Specific Vocabulary

Extensive vocabulary helps you to express yourself clearly and communicate distinctly. The best vocabulary to score in IELTS is Topic Specific Vocabulary – a vocabulary that focuses on specific topic.

Optimum utilization of good vocabulary helps you fetch high band in writing and speaking section particularly.  It also plays a key role in the listening and reading sections, contributing  upto 25% in your total score.

However, Topic specific vocabulary incorporates lots of collocations, in order to make your language sound more natural and fluent. This in turn enlarges your horizon and helps you raise your score.

The structure for the topic specific vocabulary is explained as follows

  • Topic – Meaning – Example

COMMUNICATION AND PERSONALITY

Non verbal – not using spoken or written language to communicate

  • Non verbal communication can sometimes lead to misunderstandings.

Job candidate – applicant considered for a job.

  • A multinational company hires several number of job candidates over a short span of time.

Computerize – provide with computers.

  • Nowadays, the corporate world is advanced with computerization.

Sender – someone who transmits a message.

  • In the process of communication, sender plays a very important role.

Facial expression  – gesture executed with facial muscles.

  • Facial expressions play a very important role in non verbal communication.

Oral communication –   communication by a word of mouth.

  • A manager cannot hire an employee with poor oral communication.

Eye contact –    contact that occurs when two people look directly at each other.

  • In the workplace, your posture and eye contact can send co workers a message.

Workplace – a place where work is done.

  • There are some workplace barriers that affect communication.

Co worker – an associate that one is employed with.

  • An effective co worker can help you excel in your work.

Ineffective –  Not producing an intended consequence.

  • Weak channelization can lead to ineffective communication.

Body language – communication via movements of the body

  • Non verbal communication includes gestures, facial expressions and body language.

Phone message –  a message transmitted by phone.

  • Phone message is considered an informal way of communication.

Barrier – structure that impedes free movement.

  • Barriers to communication can distort or prevent the communication.

Effective –     producing or capable of producing an intended result.

  • This lesson will focus on effective communication skills.

Team work –   cooperative labor done by a group.

  • Effective communication can increase trust and promote teamwork.

Spoken word –  a word that is spoken aloud.

  • It gets hard to understand spoken words sometime on the phone.

Face to face – directly facing each other.

  • Face to face conversation gives a better understanding of work.

Activated – rendered active

  • It is important to keep constant check on the employees in order to keep them activated.

Confuse – mistake one thing for another.

  • Semantic barriers cause confusion in effective communication.

Distract – draw someone’s attention away from something.

  • Distraction is the most common tendency among the youth these days.

Inattentive – showing lack of awareness and concentration.

  • During the second half of the class, students usually become inattentive.

Organize –  to arrange by systematic planning.

  • First step to communication is to begin with a clear message that is logical and well organized.

Interfere – get involved so as to alter or hinder an action.

  • One must not unnecessarily interfere in someone else’s life.

Involve – contain as a part

  • Teamwork is a way through which each person gets involved to do thw work delegated.

Highlight – an area of lightness in a picture.

  • Important points must be highlighted in a text.

Install – set up for use.

  • . It is important to install good machinery for better working in an organization.

Interactive – Capable of influencing each other.

  • The head of the  organization should keep having interactive sessions in order to have a better growth.

Compose – form the substance of.

  • It is very important to compose a message well in advance rather than just suddenly send it.

Interview – the questioning of a person.

  • Riya finally got a call for an interview from a company.

Posture – the arrangement of the body and its limbs.

  • One must sit in correct body posture in order to avoid various heath issues.

Extrovert –  socially confident person.

  • I am an extrovert but my younger brother is an introvert.

Introvert – a shy, reticent person. Introverts sometimes avoid large group of people. Altruist – someone who cares about a person, regardless of anything.

  • Not everyone in this world can be an altruist.

Egoist – self centered , selfish person.

  • An egoist, can never have good intentions.

Ambitious – determined to be successful.

  • In order to have a bright career, one must be very ambitious.

Diligent – showing care or effort in your work and duties.

  • If you are a diligent worker, you earnestly try to do everything right.

Gregarious – liking to be with other people.

  • Someone who is gregarious enjoys being with other people.

Persistent – determined to do something despite difficulties. Sincere – showing what you really think or feel.

  • One must be very sincere while performing their tasks.

Witty –   Ability to say or write clever amusing things.

  • Witty remarks sometimes, prove to be offensive.

Practical –  good at making or repairing things.

  • Some people find practical subjects more interesting than theoretical ones.

Resourceful –  good at finding ways of doing things.

  • The manager in a organization must be very resourceful, for the better growth of the organization.

Passionate – having or showing strong feelings.

  • Duke is a very compassionate lover.

Persistent – determined to do something despite difficulties.

  • Riya suffered from persistent cough since a very long time.

Genuine – something exactly what it appears to be.

  • There are not very genuine people in today’s world.

Adaptable –  able to adjust to new conditions.

  • Every employee in an organization must be adaptable to new technologies.

Adventurous – willing to take risks and try new ideas.

  • Being adventurous lets you take many unsaid risks in life.

Courteous – polite, especially in a way that shows respect.

  • If you are courteous, your  manners will always show concern for others.

Frank –    honest and direct in what you say.

  • Children should always be very frank with their parents while discussing problems.

Impartial – not supporting one person or group more than another.

  • A teacher should always have impartial attitude towards his students.
ENVIRONMENT

Acid rain  – Rainfall that causes harm to the environment.

  • Acid rain is a mixture of deposited material that damages the plant life and buildings.

Carcinogen –  substance that causes one or more type of cancer

  • Cigarette smoke contains a number of carcinogens.

Carbon dioxide –  gas released by plants

  • Living beings inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.

Carbon foot print – measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide , a person adds to the atmosphere.

  • Travelling by air can make ur carbon footprint bigger.

Car pool – share a car instead of driving one alone

  • Carpool can help reduce traffic on roads.

Compost – breaking down of organic waste into a healthy soil

  • We should not compost heavily infested plants.

Commute – to travel back and forth

  • Commuting in excess causes pollution in the environment.

Conservation – protection and preservation on natural environment

  • Conservation of environment would help all the living beings to live a healthy life.

Domestic waste  – garbage from a house or apartment.

  • In Our country, houses produce a huge amount of domestic waste.

Dump – to put waste in a wrong place

  • It is better to dump waste the the proper dumping ground in order to not spread various diseases.

Eco community – a community with environment friendly buildings , and clean environment.

  • Our kids want to live in that eco community building near the forest.

Endangered species  – animals or plants in danger of becoming extinct.

  • Giant panda is one of the endangered species.

Ecosystem – complex system of relationship between living and non living things

  • The marine ecosystem of the northern gulf suffered an irreparable damage.

Extinct – no longer existing

  • Many Australian animals have become extinct.

Emit –  to release or project something.

  • Vehicles emit many harmful substances in the environment.

Fertilize – adding chemicals in soil for better plant growth

  • One must use organic fertilizers, in order to have a better result.

Food chain – order in which organisms in an ecosystem eat one another

  • Food chain follows a single path whereas food web follows multiple paths.

Fossil fuel – fuel formed through very old plant and animal fossils.

  • Burning fossil fuels is a major cause of global warming.

Global warming –  long term rise in average temperature of the earth.

  • Global warming is one of the most vexing environmental issues

Green house gas –  gas in the atmosphere that stops heat from escaping into space.

  • Carbon dioxide , methane and nitrous oxide are some very common greenhouse gases.

Habitat – a place in which species normally live.

  • These days animals are getting extinct as their natural habitat is being destroyed.

Hazardous waste – dangerous substances that need careful disposal

  • Hazardous waste is usually dumped in the oceans.

Pesticide –  chemical sprayed on crops

  • It is very hard to find safer pesticides in order to stop insects from destroying the plants.

Recycle – make something new from the used material

  • Green bins are usually kept for recycling of paper and glass.

Reforestation – planting of trees

  • Reforestation projects are undertaken to accelerate the recovery of the lost plants and trees.

Renewable – something not depleted when used.

  • Production costs for renewables are higher than for the non renewables.

Reuse –  to use again

  • Things like plastic bags and bottles should be reused agin.

Smog –  fog intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants.

  • Smog results from a large amount of coal burning.

Wild life –  native fauns of a region

  • Wildlife is majorly threatened through poaching, hunting, climate change.

Toxic – deadly or poisonous material

  • Release of toxic waste in the ocean harms the aquatic life deeply.

Toxin – a poison of plant or animal origin.

  • There are some toxins that are created by human body and some toxins are excreted by plants and animals.

Zero emission  – release of no green house gas.

  • Zero emission vehicles like electric cars are cheaper now.

Self sufficient  – able to function or produce without help.

  • We live in a self sufficient farming community.

Poaching – illegal hunting of animals

  • Poaching was usually done by impoverished farmers before it was banned.

Pollute – to contaminate a natural area

  • If we pollute the water, then the aquatic life will start getting extinct.

Decay – to rot or decompose

  • His body had begun to decay after a very short while.

Biodiversity – variety of plant and animal life in a particular habitat

  • Biodiversity is an important feature of both , natural and man made ecosystem.

Ecology – branch of biology dealing with relations of organisms.

  • Ecology enriches our world and is crucial for human well being and prosperity.

Niche –  position that is very suitable for someone.

  • My uncle is an advocate in supreme court and feels that he has found his niche.

Pyramid of energy – model of energy flow in a community.

  • Pyramid of energy shows biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level.

Water pollution  – contamination of water bodies.

  • Sources of water pollution are either point sources or non point sources.

Oil spill – an escape of oil into the sea.

  • Oil spills became a major environmental problem in the 1960s due to the leakage of petroleum products in the water bodies.

Eutrophication – excessive richness of nutrients in a lake.

  • Harmful algal blooms and fish kills are the result of eutrophication.

Biodegradable – substance capable of being disposed by bacteria.

  • These cups are biodegradable so they are good for the environment.

Sustainability – ability to be maintained at certain level

  • Sustainability focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

Condensation – the conversion of vapour or a gas to liquid.

  • Water is the product of its vapour condensation.

Evaporation – process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas.

  • Evaporation constantly occurs throughout nature and is the fundamental part of water cycle.

Ozone layer  – region of earth’s stratosphere that absorbs most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.

  • Ozone layer has most of the ozone present in it.

Solar power – power obtained with harnessing the energy of sun’s rays.

  • Solar power uses sun’s energy either directly through thermal energy or through use of photovoltaic cells.

Wetlands – land consisting of marshes and swamps.

  • Wetlands are dynamic aquatic ecosystems found all over the world.

Unleaded –petrol without added lead.

  • Cars these days all use unleaded petrol.
FOOD AND DIET

Malnutrition – Lack of proper nutrition

  • Poor children usually suffer from malnutrition

Health – the state of being free from illness or injury

  • Bad health forced him to retire

Nutrients – a substance providing nourishment essential for the maintenance of life and growth

  • Nutrients like amino acids are very essential for the body to function properly.

Over eat – eating too much.

  • Over eating is one of the biggest causes of multiple organ failure.

Vitamins – organic compounds essential for normal growth.

  • Vitamins help shore up bones and heal wounds.

Over weight – excessive or extra weight

  • People having an unhealthy diet usually are over weight.

Obesity – the unhealthy condition of being very fat or overweight

  • Most of the people in America usually suffer from obesity.

Illness – a period of sickness affecting the body and mind.

  • She dies after a long illness.

Diet – all the foods a person or animal usually eats ­ One should have a healthy diet in order to stay fit. Calorie – a unit for measuring the amount of energy we get from food.

  • A soft drink contains huge amount of calories in it.

Carbohydrates –  substances in food that is a major source of energy.

  • Limiting carbohydrates is a good way to lose weight.

Body mass index (BMI) – a weight to height ratio

  • Anthony’s body mass is 28, so he is a bit over weight.

Junk – unhealthy food and food products.

  • Children usually have stomachs because of eating junk food outside.

Saturated fat – A type of fat that’s found in butter, cheese.

  • Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet can help you live longer.

Trans foods – an artificial fat that makes food last longer and taste better.

  • Trans fats are banned in many places because they’re so bad for our health.

Sugar – Natural carbohydrate found in fruits and vegetables.

  • We should consume excessive sugar in our food.

Salt –  White crystalline substance, adding taste to the food.

  • The best way to season the meat is to add salt in it.

Pescetarian  diet  – diet that’s includes vegetarian food and fish but no other form of meat.

  • My cousin thinks farming animals and chickens is cruel and bad for the planet, so he’s pescetarian.

Vegan diet –  With plant foods only

  • Many people these days are strictly following a vegan diet.

Preservatives -a chemical substance used for preventing food from spoiling or wood from decaying

  • Many processed foods have added preservatives and artificial colourings and flavourings.

Cancer – serious illness that is usually difficult to cure and often leads to death.

  • My grandfather died of stomach cancer when he was seventy.

Cholesterol – substance in body cells that can cause heart disease if levels in the blood are too high.

  • Our body must not exceed a certain amount of cholesterol.

Diabetes – serious illness in which a body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in blood.

  • Being obese is the most common cause of diabetes.

Contaminate – To make something a career of disease.

  • Contaminated water can cause infection in the stomach.

Epidemic – a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease.

  • Epidemic situation usually effects a large number of population.

Fatal – causing someone to die.

  • The heart attack wasn’t fatal, she survived.

Lobby – to contact people with power like politicians and try to influence them for your benefit.

  • The food industry spends huge amount of money lobbying politicians.

Regulate – control by means of rules and regulations.

  • Sweating allows human body to regulate its temperature.

Risk factor – something that increases a person’s chance of developing a disease.

  • Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer.

Stroke –  sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen.

  • Knowing the signs of stroke is the first step in stroke prevention.

Vegetarian – someone who does not eat meat or fish.

  • People in India usually eat vegetarian food on Tuesdays.

Eggetarian – a vegetarian who also eats eggs and egg products

  • I remained an eggetarian for a month and it was a good experience.

Consume – eat, drink or ingest

  • People consume a good deal of sugar in foods.

Bland – tasteless

  • Indians usually cannot have bland food

Aroma – a nice smell, especially from food

  • I love the aroma of coffee

Dessert – sweet food eaten at the end of a meal

  • My favourite dessert is tira misu.

Entrée – main course of the meal

  • Entrée should be ordered after the appetizers.

Kitchenware – things used for preparing food.

  • Our kitchen cupboards are full of kitchenware that we hardly use.

Menu – the list of food and drinks served in a restaurant

  • I find French menu better than the continental one.

Ingredients – all the foods used to make a dish or meal ­ It is very important to put exact amount of ingredients in order to make your dish taste delicious. Poultry – the flesh of chicken and other domestic fowl as food.

  • Factory farms keep poultry in tiny cages in order to make huge money.

Recipe – Instructions for cooking a dish or meal

  • A good recipe can make the taste of the dish even better.

Fry – to cook something in hot oil or fat ­ It is better to fry chicken rather than grill it. Cutlery – things used white eating food

  • It is very difficult to eat rice without proper cutlery.

Grain – seeds used as food like wheat, rice,

  • Grains like wheat are used to make different kinds of breads.

Bake  – to cook in an oven

  • I like freshly baked pasta

Appetizer – food served before the main course. Course – one part of the meal.

  • French people usually have three courses.

Delicious – tasting very good

  • My mother makes delicious indian food.

Grill – to cook something just above or below a heat source

  • Grilling a fish is better than frying it.

 

FAMILY AND CHILDREN

Nuclear family – family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children.

  • Raju stays in a nuclear family.

Extended family –  family larger than a nuclear family

  • Riya finds the concept of extended family better than a nuclear family.

Single parent –  a parent not living with spouse or partner.

  • Mr Hudson is a single parent.

Relatives – group of people related by blood and marriage.

  • Relatives play a very important role in keeping a family intact.

Siblings – brothers and sisters.

  • Sunita and Sham are siblings.

Adolescents – young person developing into an adult.

  • Early adolescents have a very concrete thinking.

Dependents – someone depending on you for financial support.

  • Children usually are termed as dependents for their children.

Authoritarians –  demanding that people obey completely.

  • In school, teachers are the authoritarians of the students .

Strict –  strongly limiting someone’s freedom.

  • Strict parents always raise the best liars.

Birth control – use of methods to prevent woman being pregnant.

  • Birth control can help people decide when they want to have children.

Birth rate –  Number of babies born over a given time.

  • The country’s birth rate fell to a very low record last year.

Upbringing – to care for a child, until he or she is an adult.

  • Your conduct depends a lot on your upbringing.

Raise –  to take care of a person until they are completely grown.

  • Helen , being a step daughter was raised by Mrs Neena with a lot of love and care.

Child development – changes occurring in human beings between birth and at the end of adolescence.

  • The first five years of life are critical for child development.

Child care – care for children provided by organizations or government.

  • Child care organizations have led many campaigns for the development of neglected children.

Divorce – legal process to end a marriage.

  • Jule divorced his wife Anne, in 1964.

Separation –  the action of being moved apart.

  • Arguments in a couple can lead to separation.

Child neglect – failure of being responsible towards the children.

  • If a child is neglected, he may end up as a fragile human being.

Dysfunctional family – a family where there is conflict and misbehavior.

  • Children of dysfunctional families can never have a bright future.

Emotional security– to feel happy and secure for having enough love, acceptance and respect.

  • It is very important for a child to have emotional security from their loved ones or parents.

Well adjusted – one who behaves rationally and has a good judgement.

  • A well adjusted happy child will be less likely to be physically ill.

Responsible parent – ability to act correctly while bringing up a child.

  • Mr Behal is a very responsible parent.

Formative years – a period of person’s life that has had a big influence on the person.

  • The period of adolescence can be termed as your formative years.

Adoption – taking legal responsibilities as a parent of a child

  • The process of adoption involves a huge responsibility for the care taker.

Fostering – taking responsibility of a child in place of the child’s natural parents.

  • Such conditions foster the spread of the disease.

Nurture – care for and protect while they are growing.

  • Teachers should nurture the creativity of their students.

Over protective parents – wishing to protect a child too much.

  • Over protective parents raise the best liars.

Spoiled child – a child who shows bad behavior due to overindulgence of parents.

  • Divya never respected her mother and became a spoiled child.

Husband – the male partner in a marriage.

  • Every girl wishes to have a lovable husband.

Wife – a married woman.

  • Being a wife is not an easy job in this world.

Uncle – the brother of someone’s father or mother.

  • My uncle is a bank manager in SBI.

Nephew – the son of someone’s brother or sister.

  • My nephew just turned 12 last month.

Niece – a daughter of someone’s brother or sister.

  • Her niece won a gold medal in the swimming competition.

Cousin – a child of someone’s uncle or aunt.

  • My cousins always stand by my side , in good or bad times.

Spouse – a husband or wife, considered in relation to their partners.

  • I saw your spouse buying flowers for you the other day.

Step mother – the daughter of one’s spouse, and his or her previous partner.

  • Step mothers are usually termed to be cruel.

Mother in law – the mother of one’s spouse.

  • My mother in law drinks coffee instead of tea in the morning.

Father in law – the father of one’s spouse.

  • My father in law suffered from depression at the age of seventy.

Puberty – period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity.

  • He reached puberty later than most of his classmates.

Hereditary – based on inheritance.

  • His eye and hair color are hereditary.

Infancy – period of early childhood.

  • Children are usually rebellious during their infancy.

Kin – one’s family and relations,

  • Our neighbors and their kin attended a family function in the neighborhood.

Juvenile – childish, immature

  • She criticized his juvenile behavior at the party.

Monogamy – the state of being married to one person at a time.

  • Monogamy is very common among birds.

Nuptial – related to marriage or wedding.

  • Preparations were instantly commenced for the approaching nuptials.

Orphan – a child whose parents are dead.

  • She became an orphan when her parents died in a car accident.

Progeny – a descendant of a person or animal.

  • The small plants are the progeny for the oak tree.

Wedlock – the state of being married.

  • I joined a happy couple in holy wedlock.

Quadruplets – each of four children born at one birth.

  • The zoo says only 1% od red panda litters are quadruplets.

Offspring –  a person’s child

  • The disease can be transmitted from parent to offspring.
MEDIA AND ADVERTISING

Advertising agency – a company that creates adverts for other companies.

  • Advertising agency clients include business and corporations, non profit organizations and private companies.

Advertising budget – the amount of money a company tries to spend on advertising.

  • Every company has their own advertising budget.

Brand awareness – the extent of how well people know a particular brand.

  • Creating brand awareness is a key step in promoting a new product.

Brand loyalty – the degree to which people continue to buy from the same brand or company.

  • Brand loyalty is considered to be bread and butter of what keeps a business alive.

Packaging – the process of shipping a product

  • Good quality packaging makes the product look very attractive.

Call to action – encouraging someone to take a particular action.

  • If an employee is misbehaving in an organization, the manager must be called to action.

Classified ads – small advertisements often put in a newspaper or magazines by individuals.

  • Classified ads are much cheaper than large display ads used by businesses.

Buy and sell – exchange of items between individuals.

  • No organization can work without the process of buy and sell technique.

To cold call – to call someone with the aim of selling something without them asking you to do so.

  • When someone is cold calling, it is usually done without an appointment.

Commercial break – short break during tv programmes when advertisements are shown.

  • Short commercial breaks keep viewers more engaged.

Commercial channel – channels making money by showing advertisements

  • Commercial channels aired more repeats than their counterparts in the public sector.

To go viral – quickly become extremely popular.

  • Nirbhaya case went viral on the internet in a very short span.

Junk mail – unwanted promotional leaflets and letters

  • Junk mails are usually sent out by direct marketing, or direct mail firms.

Launch a product – to introduce a new product

  • Hyundai company launched a new car last month.

Mailing list – list of names and contact details used by a company to send information.

  • Mailing list is a formal way of transmitting information.

Mass media – large media outlets like tv, newspapers etc.

  • Mass media is the most convenient way to reach a large audience.

Niche product – product aimed at a distinct group of people.

  • Some companies launch a niche product with a very low affordability rate, in order to make it affordable for a particular section of society.

Press release – something written by company for newspapers and magazines and websites to share and publish.

Press release is a formal way of briefing about an event.

Place an advert – to put an advert somewhere.

  • Placing an advert is considered to be a very simple process.

Prime time – time when most people watch television.

  • Big boss show is networked at a prime time.

Product placement – using product as a prop in a tv show or a movie.

  • Product placement lets a company incorporate, specific brands and products through various celebrities for the promotion of the particular product.

Sales page – a page specifically used to promote a product.

  • Every luxury store has their own sales page designed for the public.

To show adverts – to display adverts on tv.

  • Adverts were shown throughout the movie emphasizing the importance of clean water.

Social media – websites enabling users to share content.

  • Social media helps interact with people all over the world.

Spam email – unwanted, promotional email.

  • Usually spam emails are sent through the enterprise mail server.

Target audience – a particular group being aimed at.

  • His stated target audience is old people.

Word of mouth – spoken communication as a means of transmitting information.

  • Slander is a defamatory statement made by word of mouth.

Transit advertising – posters on trains, buses, etc.

  • The main purpose of transit advertising is to reach riders and acquaint them with the brand.

Covert advertising – product being incorporated into a movie or tv show.

  • Promotion of ponds beauty cream is done by youth of today, however it is one of the examples of covert advertising.

Sponsorship – financial support received from a sponsor.

  • Arts sponsorship can be more effective than advertising.

Tele marketing – promotion and selling of product through a phone.

  • Tele marketing helps in making a direct contact with the customer.

Celebrity endorsement – celebrity paid to promote and market a product.

  • Celebrity endorsement is highly an effective way of marketing a product as it is a very high profile affair.

Flyers – printed information handed out to customers face to face.

  • Flyers can be an attractive piece of information but they are usually very costly.

Text messages – promotions reaching target audience in a limited time with limited characters in the text.

  • Jule’s text message contained a warning and brought riya  back to work in the organization.

Billboards – signs on the road or at sports stadiums.

  • Larger bill boards will always have a better impact on the audience or the customers.

Magazine ads – ads aimed at a specific market and interest groups.

  • Magazine ads are more expensive than newspaper ads.

Newspaper ads – ads placed in particular section in a newspaper.

  • Newspaper ads play a very important role in portraying good and bad both.

Tv commercial –  Promotion of products and services using color, action, sound and sight.

  • Promotion of products through this platform is memorable and accessible to large market.

Client base – a specific type of people that regularly buy the company’s product

  • My uncle had a client base of around 100 by the end of 2019.

Coupon – paper production that helps market a product.

  • Good brand stores provide coupons on the purchase of clothes in huge amounts.

Jingle – a short song , that helps sell product through audio or visual media.

  • Companies license popular songs from performers to promote their product that they want to sell by attracting the customer.

Press kit – media package of brochures and other assorted free materials, sent to various outlets to promote a product.

  • Film companies often use press kits to help give their new film some exposure.

USP – unique sales point or unique sales proposition.

  • USP is the essence of what makes your product or service better than your competitors.

Viral marketing – common expression used to help market a product across the internet.

  • Viral marketing is usually done by accident when a wave of internet popularity responds well to a particular product.

SEO – search engine optimization, process of increasing the quality and quantity of website traffic.

  • SEO targets different kinds of searches, for example, image search, video search etc.

Slogan – memorable phrase used in advertising.

  • Slogans are used in advertisements in order to promote a product.

Banner – elongated poster used to promote a product.

  • These days people see a lot of banners in print form on the buildings.

Drum up – procure something by persistent effort.

  • We were unable to drum up enthusiasm for the new policies.

Gloss – shiny, not substantial

  • The attire worn by the actress in the show last night was too glossy.

Buzz – speaking rapidly in a low voice

  • Students in a classroom have a habit to buzz all the time.

Hype – to promote or accent excessively

  • To sell a product we need to hype the usage of it.

 

MONEY AND BUSINESS

Mercantile – of or relating to merchants or trading.

  • Ridhem is the victim of the damage done by mercantile capitalism.

Trade – the business of buying and selling.

  • We can do a good trade in small appliance.

Commerce – interchange of ideas , opinions or sentiment.

  • In this island the commerce is being carried on in wine , brandy and building stores.

Transaction – an exchange or transfer of goods, services or funds.

  • The electronic transactions between the two companies, was the major reason of the drift.

Dealing – manner of conduct.

  • The dealings with Ramesh’s company are appreciable.\

Patronage – the support or influence of an individual entity.

  • Alfa Tech trade company is totally dependent upon the patronage Mr Smith.

Objective – of or relating to.

  • The objective of the new venture was to attain more and more of man power.

Startup – a fledging business enterprise

  • My friend and I have planned to startup our own company.

Currency – circulation as a medium of exchange.

India uses rupees as its currency.

Appointment – an arrangement for a meeting.

  • The Eduways Company appointed him as the chief editor in the company.

Consolidate – make something physically stronger or more solid

  • As media power becomes consolidated, the potential for abuse becomes more serious.

Enterprise culture –  the earning of money.

  • We deliver low interest rates , sound public finances and an enterprise culture.

Market – a place where something is sold.

  • The domestic market is still depressed but the demand abroad is picking up.

Commodity – a product that can be traded.

  • The country’s most valuable commodities include tin and diamonds.

Operational – relating to a particular activity.

  • There are operational advantages in putting sales and admin in the same building.

Offshore – based in a different country.

  • The shoe factory has been offshored to Mexico.

Reshoring – moving a business that was based in a different country to its original country.

  • It was clear that reshoring can help in rebalancing the economy of the country.

Vested interest –  a strong personal interest in something.

  • As both a teacher and a parent, she had a vested interest , in keeping the institute remain open.

Transact – to do and complete a business activity

  • The sale was transacted in condition of the greatest secrecy.

Amortizable – used to describe a business cost or an asset.

  • Capital expenses are amortizable over a number of years.

Coopetition – the act of working together with  a person who is your business competitor.

  • The two companies have a relationship, which you could describe a competition.

Cooperatively – together with people helping each other.

  • The teachers reached to the solution by working together cooperatively.

Intangible asset –  something valuable that a company has, which is not material.

  • The good reputation of this company is its intangible asset.

Shareholder – a person who owns shares in the company.

  • I was a shareholder of the Reliance Telecom Company.

Devolve – to be given to other people.

  • To be a good manger , you must know how devolve responsibility to others.

Legal Tender – something that can be used as an official medium of payment.

  • My friend used his father’s property as a legal tender for his company.

Gold – great wealth

  • After shifting to America , my friend’s cousin is playing in golds.

Debt – an obligation to pay or do something.

  • Once a company goes in debt, it is hard to sustain it.

Subsidization – the act of providing a subsidy

  • A subsidization is being offered by government of India to the small scale industries.

Barter – an equal exchange

  • Several years ago , india had no currency but traded by barter exchange.

Saving – a sum of money put by as a rescue.

  • The savings of an individual helps him in his crisis.

Loan – the temporary provision of money.

  • The bank of India denied a loan requested by the Reliance industries.

Grubstake – funds supplied in return for a promised share of profit.

  • Mr Hiranandani worked as a Grubstaker for Aamir Khan’s film.

Wealth – the abundance of material possessions and resources.

  • One’s wealth cannot buy him happiness.

Scratch – an indication of damage.

  • After the breakdown of the company , my friend started from the scratch to build his own empire.

Cost – the property of having material worth.

  • The cost of a beach facing house is very high.

Expense – money spent to perform work.

  • The expense of the institute was more than its earnings hence it collapsed.

Benefit – something that aids or promotes well beings.

  • No benefits were provided by the government to the poor during their crisis.

Fundraiser – a social function that is held for the purpose of raising money.

  • A fundraiser program is being held by the rotary club for cancer patients on the 20th of December.

Collect –  Get or being together.

  • The amount of donations was collected by the manager of NGO.

Invested – to put money into a bank , business or property.

  • Flipkart invested its money into a new company named Myntra.

Usurer – someone who lends money at excessive rates of interest.

  • The farmers were suppressed by the usurers of the village.

Venture capital  – wealth available for the investment in new or speculative enterprises.

  • His venture capital was not enough for a new startup as an industrialist.

Pittance – an inadequate payment.

  • He paid his worker a pittance.

Receipts – the entire amount of income before any deductions are made.

  • The receipt of the goods did not match the balance sheet of the company.

Monopoly – exclusive control or possession of something.

  • The government is determined to protect its tobacco monopoly.

Forgery – a copy that is represented as the original.

  • He was found guilty of forgery.

 

Stagflation – a period of slow economic growth and high employment.

  • The 1970s and early 1980s India saw the onset of stagflation.

Loot – goods or money obtained legally.

  • He made a lot of loot selling cars.

Wallet – a pocket size case for holding papers and paper money.

  • Alex paid for his ticket and tucked the wallet inside his suit jacket.
SPORTS AND EXERCISE

Active rest –  a leisure time during which you exercise.

  • Active rest is a technique that trainers implement to maximize benefits of a workout.

 

Volleyball – team sport where two teams are separated by a net.

 

  • Boys play volleyball better than girls.

          Barbell – a weight lifting gear.

  • If you are new to lifting weights, your barbell may only hold few pounds.

Brisk walk – fast walk.

  • People who are obese must do brisk walking every day.

To build muscle – to gain muscle mass.

  • Consecutive gyming can cause an adult to have a build on their muscle.

Fitness programme – a timetable of activities to keep you in good shape.

  • World health organization organizes various fitness programmes every year.

Football fan – someone who adores football.

  • My brother is a huge football fan.

Football pitch – surface on which you play football.

  • Nowadays football pitches have turf for the players to play.

Football season – a period when football is played.

  • My parents and I go to London every year during the football season.

Jogging – a form of running at a slow pace.

  • Jogging keeps the heart rate very stable.

Arena – level area for holding sports events.

  • The arena was full of excited spectators cheering on their team.

Amateur– engaged in something, for example, playing sports.

  • The Asian games were originally for amateurs only.

 Athlete – a person who trains for and competes in a sport.

  • Some people become athletes to take it as a profession.

Beat –  to beat someone in a game.

  • India beat England to win the cricket cup.

Champion –  a top rated, highly successful player.

  • Michael is known as the champion of badminton in our school.

Cheer on –  to shout encouragement to a team.

  • The players made a lot of noise cheering on their team.

Compete – to take part in a contest.

  • Over 5000 athletes will compete in the Asian games.

Court – a quadrangular area on which ball games are played

  • The badminton courts in delhi have a grass surface.

Cup – awarded as a price in a contest.

  • After our team won the basketball match, we were awarded the championship cup.

Draw –  to finish the game with an even score.

  • Team India and England had a draw , in the last cricket match.

Gym – a room or building equipped for physical exercise.

Our gym has many running machines and cycling machines.

Half time –  interval between first and second half of the game.

  • The players had a lot of water during the half time and could not play efficiently after that.

Lob – a shot that is hit in a high arc.

  • His lob flew into the air , and dropped near the adjoining farm.

Penalty – punishment imposed on the player for breaking the rules.

  • They allowed him to pay back the money without the penalty.

Score – number of points earned during the game.

  • The teams of India and Australia had the same score till the half time.

Serve – to hit the ball to begin playing.

  • Serving the ball is one of the most important skills in sports like tennis.

Tackle – to  challenge an opponent.

  • Good players need to learn the technique of tackling the opponent player.

Team mate – a fellow member of the sports team.

  • One of my team mate could not reach at work on time.

Umpire – a sports official with authorities to make rules during a game.

  • In a swimming competition, there minimum of two umpires conducting the competition.

Whistle – small instrument that make a high pitched noise when blown.

  • The referee blew his whistle thrice to signal the end of the match.

Victory – the act of winning the game or contest.

  • The players had worked very hard and they deserved their victory.

Spectator – a person who watches the match.

  • Spectators have the tendency to create an exciting or a very dull atmosphere.

Skill – the ability to do something well.

  • Rahul has gone to a boxing camp to improve his boxing skills.

Record – the best performance that has officially been measured and noted.

  • Riya dutta has the highest record of having the longest hair .

Another string to your bow – another skill.

  • I enjoy my work , but I would like to have another string to my bow in case I lose my job.

To dive in head first – to start doing something 100% .

If you begin something enthusiastically, without thinking about the possible consequences , you dive in head first.

       To get off on the wrong foot – to start a relationship badly.

  • I got on a wrong foot with my best friend.

To jump through the hoops – to do what you are told to do.

  • The general manager asked me to jump through the hoops , without being answerable to the higher authorities.

To do something off your own bat – to take an initiative and do something on your own.

  • Whatever he did, he did off his own bat.

To get off to a flying start –  to make a successful start

  • Milkha Singh got off to a flying start.

To be on the ball – to be sharp and know everything that’s happening

  • Duke was on the ball when he noticed the boredom of the clients and quickly switched his presentation.

Plain sailing – without any problems

  • Team building was not at all plain sailing.

Run rings around someone – to be far superior to someone else

  • One should not unnecessarily run rings around someone , as it is ethically not right.

Name of the game – the core priority

  • The name of the game in learning to play an instrument is practice.

You cant win them all – impossible to win every match or contest

  • I know you are disappointed to have lost the game, but you cant win them all.

Win some lose some – normal condition to loose some match or contest

  • We had to shut the business down this week , but in this industry , you win some and lose some.

Be out of your league – when the other competitors are far superior to you.

  • Winning the cricket match this year is out of our league this time.

Badminton – sport played by a racquet

  • Sehaj loves to play badminton.

basketball – game played between two teams with a ball.

  • Our school won inter school basketball competition, for 3 years consecutively.

A personal best – best score achieved by a sports person in a particular time.

His score in the Asian games 2018 was his personal best.

TRANSPORT

Street car – an electric vehicle that’s transports people usually in cities

  • Usually people take a city tour in street cars.

Rapid transit – refers to a system of fast moving trains in a city

  • India is not yet updated with efficient rapid transit system.

Vessel – a large boat or ship

  • Terrorists have started using vessels for the transportation of weapons.

Congested – refers to roads that have too much of traffic.

  • Roads are very congested during 9 am in the morning.

Rush hour –  busy part of the day when people are travelling back and forth

  • The opening of new bridge in my city, really helped with the rush hour.

Car pool – two or more people doing a regular journey in one car.

  • Car pool helps in reducing pollution.

Long haul – travelling a long distance.

  • Long haul journeys can be stressful for old people.

Itinerary – a detailed plan or a route of the journey.

  • Tourists are provided with proper itinerary before starting their tour.

Round trip – a trip of a place and back again.

  • I drive around 200 km round trip in every 15 days.

Air pollution – the presence of harmful substances in the air.

 

  • Burning of fossil fuel causes a lot of air pollution.

Emit – to send out gas

  • Heavy vehicles emit a lot of harmful gases.

Electric car – a car that uses energy from a battery to operate .

  • Electric cars can help you save money.

Spacecraft – a vehicle used for travel in space

  • Spacecraft is yet not a necessity .

Auto pilot – equipment that allows for an aircraft or ship to travel in a particular direction without needing a person to control it.

  • Auto pilots are not used through out the normal flights.

Coach – a bus used to take groups of people on long journeys.

  • I would like to tour the city of Chandigarh in coach

Yacht – a boat used for travelling around for pleasure or racing.

  • Rich people can easily afford their own yachts.

Overpass – a bridge that carries one road over another.

  • Construction of new overpass reduced the traffic significantly.

Environmentally friendly – not harmful to the environment.

  • Electric cars are more environmentally friendly than the other cars.

Business trip – a journey taken for business purposes.

  • My father goes for a business trip every month.

Commute – to travel regularly between work and home.

  • I commute every day in my own car.

 Bumper to bumper – with very little space between the cars.

  • The cars are aligned bumper to bumper during a traffic jam.

Hit the road – to begin the trip.

  • I like to hit the road early while going on long journeys.

Service road – a small road next to busier or faster road.

  • Usually heavy vehicles are not allowed to take the service road.

Public transport – system of vehicles used for public .

  • The fares for the public transport are not very high.

Journey – act of travelling from one place to another.

  • Train journeys are better than car journeys.

Motorway – a road with three lanes going each way.

  • Motorways play a very important role in transportation of goods.

Junction – where two roads meet

  • Roads of hill stations have many junctions.

Roundabout – a road junction at which traffic moves in one direction round a central island to reach one of the roads converging on it.

  • Chandigarh is a planned city with many roundabouts.

Freeway/highway/expressway – a public road often with multiple lanes.

  • Usually people drive their cars at very high speed on highways or the expressways.

Ring road/ Belt way – a road that circles a town or a city.

  • I never prefer taking a ring road while travelling.

Bus lane – a part of road marked off with painted lines.

  • Two wheelers are not allowed to use the bus lane.

Noise pollution – annoying levels of noise.

  • Increased volume of music in my house caused disturbance to the neighbors.

Petrol – a light fuel oil is used in internal combustion engines.

  • My uncle owns three petrol pumps in one city itself.

Rail card- a pass entitling the holders to reduced rail fares.

  • Rail cards are usually used by youth to manage their budget.

Air pocket/ turbulence – a region of low pressure causing an aircraft to lose height suddenly.

  • Air pockets can sometimes can cause aircrafts to go up and down suddenly.

Lorry – a large heavy motor vehicle for transporting goods.

  • Emergency food supplies were brought in by lorry.

Minibus – a small bus for about ten to fifteen passengers.

  • Our family went for a picnic in a minibus.

Motorbike – small motor cycle with a low frame and small wheels.

  • My brother loves to ride motorbikes.

Taxi – a car that is hired to take passengers where ever they want to go.

  • We usually travel to Delhi in a taxi.

Ferry– a boat transporting people or vehicles over a body of water

  • Many ferries are found in a place like Goa.

Bicycle – a vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals.

  • Riding bicycle was my favourite hobby during my childhood.

Pedestrian – a person who travels by foot.

  • My grandfather has remained a pedestrian all his life.

Crowded – compacted or concentrated

  • Railway stations always remain crowded.

Departure – the act of leaving

  • The departure timings of the some trains are usually fixed.

Arrival – the act of coming to a certain place.

  • During winters, train arrivals get delayed due to fog.

Ticket – a commercial document showing  the holder is entitled to something.

  • Flight tickets are more expensive than the train tickets.

Luggage – cases used to carry belongings when travelling.

  • I always have extra luggage whenever I travel abroad.

Passport – a document allowing citizen to travel abroad.

  • My passport just expired two weeks ago.

Helicopter – aircraft with long blades on top that go round very fast.

  • Like airplanes, helicopters travel through the air but does not have wings.

Tram – a vehicle that runs on rails and is propelled by electricity.

  • He was asked to take the tram to the departure terminal.
TOURISM

Travel – to go on a trip or tour.

  • My friend travelled all the way from Mumbai to Chennai for my wedding.

Journey – something suggesting travel.

  • The journey from Mcleodanj to Triund is very risky.

Trip – to make a journey.

  • Unplanned trips are the best kind of vacation.

Ecotourism – tourism directed towards exotic , threatened environment intended to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife.

  • My tourist guide suggested me to visit the very famous ecotourist Ranthambore forests for my wildlife photography.

Transport – the act of moving something from one location to another.

  • There is no transport facility from Shimla to Mashobra.

Export – commodities sold to a foreign country.

  • The export business of a country brings high revenues to it.

Pilgrimage – a journey to a sacred place.

  • Mecca and medina have a very high pilgrimage value.

Touristry – the business of providing service to tourists.

  • We found no good touristry in Jaipur for our school trip.

Sightseeing – the activity of visiting places of interest in a particular location.

  • We are planning to go for sightseeing at the Pichola lake after lunch.

Lodging – temporary accommodation.

  • The lodging facilities of the students are managed by Mr Smith.

Destination – the ultimate goal for which something is done.

  • As soon as we reached our destination the bonfire party started.

Leisure  – time available for lease and relaxation.

  • The students had a leisure time at the Garden of Buddha.

Grand tour – an extended cultural tour

  • I planned a grand tour of Europe for my parent’s 50th

Airlines – a commercial enterprise that provides scheduled flights for passengers.

  • The Air India airlines provides all the comforts to their passengers.

Taxi/cab – a cab driven by a person whose job is to take passengers wherever they want.

  • In Delhi my taxi/cab driver was not at all cooperative.

Hotel – a building where travellers can pay for lodging and meals and other services.

Camping – the activity of spending a holiday living in the camp.

  • My school has arranged a camping trip to kherganga this January.

Excursion – a journey taken for pleasure.

  • My brother surprised me by offering the excursion trip to Manali.

Itinerant – travelling from place to place to work

  • He serves as an itinerant of the company for the marketing of the company products.

Voyage – an act of travelling by water

  • In 1995, it was my father’s first voyage as a captain.

Wayfaring – travelling on foot.

  • We decided to wayfare around the town to know it better.

Cuisine – manner of preparing food.

  • We enjoyed so many different cuisines through out our trip.

Junket – a trip taken by an official at public expense

  • Our Prime Minister was on a junket to USA for some publicity.

Wanderlust – very strong or irresistible impulse to travel.

  • Ridhem’s wanderlust inspired her to be a tour and travel guide.

Trekker – a traveller who makes a long arduous journey.

  • Almost all the professional trekkers prefer Divson’s trekking kit.

Roam – move about aimlessly

  • We were roaming about in the streets of kalighat at 2 am.

Jet lag – fatigue and sleep disturbance as a result of jet travel.

  • I suffered with a jet lag after a long haul flight.

Locomote – change location.

  • Plants cannot locomote.

Slither – to pass or move smoothly

  • The snake slithered into the kitchen through the bodyguard.

Elapse – pass by

  • Probably several weeks elapse before the treatment starts.

Commute – a regular journey of some distance to and from your place

  • It is very easy to commute to any place in chandigarh.

Expedition – a journey organized for a particular purpose.

  • The expedition started in Bengal.

Motion sickness – the state of being dizzy because of travelling.

  • Throughout the journey she was suffering from motion sickness.

Sledge – a vehicle on runners pulled by horses or dogs for transportation.

  • We used his sledge and horse to transport fire wood for that night.

Tripper – a tourist who is visiting sights of interest.

  • He was a very keen tripper till his last breadth.

Swash – the movement or sound of water

  • He could hear the swash of the lake from one balcony.

Travail – use of physical or mental energy

  • He was trembling and shaking in the agony of travail.

Byway – a side road less travelled

  • The byroad to Manali seemed too scary.

Hand luggage – luggage that is light enough to be carried in hand.

  • Only 10 kg of hand luggage was allowed in the flight.

Circumnavigate – sail or travel all the way around

  • The navy was circumnavigating throughout the Island.

Prance – move with high springy steps

  • A number of rats prance against a black background.

Throughway – a broad highway designed for high speed traffic.

  • The throughway from Delhi to Agra is very well built.

Regional – related to or limited to a particular region.

  • The regional language of Bihar is treated with huge respect.

Boost – the act of giving hope or support to someone.

  • The coach boosted the team players for their better performance in the match.

Infrastructure – the basic structures or features of a system or organization.

  • The infrastructure of Prime Minister’s office is built, keeping in mind all the safety measures.

Stray – move about aimlessly or without any destination often in search of food or employment.

  • The man was straying around the jungle for weeks before he found shelter.

Crawl – a very slow movement.

  • The baby is crawling for the first time.

Sport fishing – the act of someone who fishes as a diversion.

  • Sport fishing is very famous near the village of Goa.

Heritance – heritage

  • India has a very rich heritance from the past.

Floriculture – the cultivation of flowering plants

  • All the tourists were mesmerized by the floriculture of the Rose Garden.
EDUCATION

Compulsory – Having the power to force someone to do something.

  • French was a compulsory subject in our school.

Curriculum – Courses offered by a school or a university.

  • This university also offers a marketing curriculum.

Inquisitive  – A person eager to gain knowledge about something.

  • She was very inquisitive to know the details of her new French course.

Discipline – A set of rules governing conduct or behavior.

  • Discipline is an integral aspect of leading a healthy life.

Peer – A person who belongs to the same age group.

  • Peer pressure makes a student very competent.

Remedial – Giving or intended as a remedy or cure.

  • Weak students must always attend the remedial classes.

Graduate – To successfully complete an academic degree.

  • My brother is doing his graduation from Delhi University.

Qualification – A pass of an examination or an official completion of a degree.

  • Her qualification was enough to get her a new job.

Research – Careful study to find out new knowledge.

  • She did a lot of research before deciding her topic for synopsis.

Visual – Relating to seeing or sight.

  • Children grasp better through visual information rather than words.

Theory – An idea or set of ideas use to explain a fact or event.

  • Scientific theories are sometimes hard to understand.

Degree – Title given by the university upon completion of studies.

  • As soon as I finished my degree, I got a job in a very good company.

Evaluate – To judge the value or condition of something through careful study.

  • It is very important to evaluate your progress by the end of the semester.

Analyze – To study in great detail in order to discover meaning and essential features.

  • The doctor analyzed the reports before giving his opinion.

Procrastinate – Delay or postpone action.

  • When I have a lot of revision to do I always procrastinate.

Distance learning – Delivering education to students who are not physically in school.

  • I wish to do my Masters degree through distance learning.

Higher education – education attended after secondary education.

  • Students these days are travelling Abroad for higher education.

Literacy – The ability to read and write.

  • The literacy rate in our country is increasing eminently.

Coursework – Regular work done by the students as part of the course.

  • The course work of medicine is too tough.

Co educational – Education of pupils of both the sexes together.

  • Co education is a very healthy way to teach discipline to students.

Cheat – to behave in a dishonest way in order to get what you want.

  • The students should not cheat during the exams in order to evaluate their performance.

Illiterate – Unable to read and write.

  • Poor children are always termed as illiterate.

Primary ( Elementary ) Education – first few years of formal education.

  • Authentic primary education is good for a child’s growth.

Secondary education – education during the time as a  teenager.

  • The years of secondary education help a child decide their career.

Higher education  – education at universities.

  • India has many universities providing a good level of higher education.

Concentrate – to direct your attention or efforts to a particular activity.

  • My brother cannot concentrate on his studies for very long.

School subject – A course or area of study.

  • English, Maths , Science etc are various compulsory school subjects.

School uniform – obligatory attire worn by the students.

  • The school uniform of my school was a combination of red and white.

Private lessons –  Extra time given to the students in case of difficulty.

  • Weak students should be given private lessons to help them attain better grades.

Formal education – classroom based learning provided by trained teachers.

  • Formal education is the best way to achieve a well qualified degree.

Non formal education – flexible and learner centered learning.

  • Non formal education does not target a particular group of people.

University degree – An academic title given by a university or college.

  • University degrees help you seek the jobs on a better scale.

Boarding school – school where pupils live during term time.

  • Dehradun has many boarding schools.

Intensive course – A course that offers lots of training in order to reach a goal in as short a time as possible.

  • Intensive courses usually help children with very sharp minds.

Learn something by heart – To memorize thoroughly

  • I leaned the process of digestive system by heart during my final exams.

To play truant – To stay away from classes without permission.

  • Rohan often played a truant and wrote his own absence notes.

Tuition fees – Money paid for the course of study.

  • Tuition fess of private schools is a very expensive affair.

To meet a deadline – To finish a task or the job in the time allowed or agreed.

  • Shilpa could not meet the deadline and paid the penalty for late submission of her project.

 Mature student – A student who is older than average and returned to education after a period at work.

  • Monil is the most mature student in the MBA class.

Public schools – Exclusive independent schools in the UK.

  • Higher education holds a great value in public schools.

Subject specialist – A teacher who has great knowledge of a particular subject.

  • My mother is a subject specialist in Punjabi.

To take a year out – To spend a year working or travelling before starting university.

  • Randeep thought of taking a year out before getting committed to another degree.

To sit an exam – to take an exam

  • Yogesh sat for an exam several times, but could not clear the backlog.

State school – A school paid for by public funds and available to the general public.

  • State schools have a varied structure to provide a better education.

Tutor – A teacher paid to work privately with one student or a small group.

  • My parents got me a mathematics tutor to help me improve my grades.

Pupil – A child at school who is being taught.

  • Many pupils need some special attention in a class.

Dissertation – a long piece of writing on a specific subject, submitted especially at the end of the degree.

  • Students pursuing the degree of law have to submit their dissertation by the end of the degree.

Seminar – an occasion when a group of students and a teacher meet for training.

  • My friend went to attend a seminar that took place in Jammu University.

Post doctoral – advanced study that a person does after completing their doctoral studies.

  • My father supervised several post doctoral projects in the university.

College – place of higher education or vocational training

  • My college was located in the midst of the city.